17 research outputs found

    Zimbabwe’s Emergency Management System: A Promising Development

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    Zimbabwe‚Äôs encounter with droughts, in particular, combined with economic and political challenges, has denigrated the country‚Äôs former status as the ‚Äúbreadbasket of Southern Africa‚ÄĚ (Hunter-Gault 2006; Maphosa 1994; Swarns 2002). Zimbabwe is particularly prone to a number of natural and man-made hazards such as droughts, floods, veld fires, storms (PreventionWeb 2012), and HIV/AIDS (United Nations Development Programme 2010) among other epidemics. Between 1980 and 2010, PreventionWeb (2012) documented 35 natural disaster events, which resulted in 6,448 deaths, averaging 208 deaths from disasters annually. Of the 35 natural disasters, 6 were drought occurrences, 7 were floods, 2 were storms, and 20 were epidemic occurrences. Chikoto (2004) 1 also counted the number of public transportation disasters that plagued Zimbabwe between 1982 and 2003, which claimed over 700 lives and injured over 400 people. To mitigate and prepare for these and other hazards facing Zimbabwe, the Government of Zimbabwe (GoZ) created the Department of Civil Protection and charged it with the onus of coordinating and managing disasters and reducing hazards. This chapter traces the history of Zimbabwe‚Äôs emergency management system, with a focus on the factors contributing to the nation‚Äôs vulnerability to disasters and hazards. In addition to tracing the impact of past disasters, the chapter also discusses some of the opportunities and challenges confronting the country‚Äôs emergency management system. The chapter concludes with recommendations for improving this system

    Nonprofit Georgia: Geography

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    This pamphlet summarizes statistics on the nonprofit sector in Georgia, assembled and analyzed by a Nonprofit Studies Program research team. The focus of this second report in the "Nonprofit Georgia" series is the geographic distribution of Georgia's nonprofit resources. Numerous tables and exhibits report on the distribution of public charities and foundations by geographic area, and compare this to the distribution of population and income in the state. Public support and government grants to charities are analyzed by geographic region, as is the geographic distribution of grants by Georgia foundations. Analysis is based primarily on 990 and 990-PF forms filed by Georgia public charities and foundations in 2000 and 2005. This report is a part of ongoing research on public charities and foundations in the state of Georgia, made possible through a generous grant from the Wilbur and Hilda Glenn Family Foundation. Research Report Number 07-0

    Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness: Comparisons of Nonprofit, Public, and Private Organizations

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    Few studies have compared the mitigation and preparedness activities adopted by nonprofit, private, and public organizations. This study contributes to this important literature by comparing the adoption of mitigation and preparedness activities by nonprofit, private, and public organizations in Memphis, Tennessee. The findings show that although nonprofit organizations may be more resource-constrained compared with private corporations, they adopt more mitigation and preparedness activities than private corporations. In addition, public organizations adopt more mitigation and preparedness activities than private organizations. The results are inconclusive on the comparison between nonprofits and public agencies

    The Adoption and Use of the Hirschman‚ÄďHerfindahl Index in Nonprofit Research: Does Revenue Diversification Measurement Matter?

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    Since its introduction by Tuckman and Chang, the Hirschman‚ÄďHerfindahl Index (HHI) has been widely adopted into the nonprofit literature as a precise measure of revenue concentration. This widespread adoption has been characterized by diverse composition, with the HHI‚Äôs calculation being largely determined by the nature of the available data and the degree to which it contained disaggregated measures of revenue. Using the NCCS 990 Digitized Data, we perform an acid test on whether different HHI measures yield significantly different results. Four measures of revenue concentration‚ÄĒan aggregated measure based on three revenue streams, an aggregated measure separating government grants from other contributions, a more nuanced measure based on seven revenue streams, and a fully disaggregated measure based on thirteen revenue streams‚ÄĒare used to predict two dominant nonprofit financial health dimensions: financial volatility and financial capacity. Overall, our results show that aggregation in HHI measurement matters; aggregation often downplays relationships by influencing the significance levels and magnitudes of estimates in a non-trivial way

    Haiti’s Emergency Management: A Case of Regional Support, Challenges, Opportunities, and Recommendations for the Future

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    As one of the poorest nations in the Western Hemisphere (with over 70 percent of the population living on less than $2 a day) (Grunewald et al. 2010), one wonders about the state of the Haitian Emergency Management System prior to the 2010 earthquake. Clearly, Haiti has been an economically-challenged nation for decades and its protracted poverty level further increases its vulnerability to disasters (PAHO 1994) and impacts its ability to respond and recover effectively when disasters occur. In addition, political instabilities have led to poor economic development opportunities and increased risks. In spite of Haiti’s economic and political challenges, it is possible to gain insight into what the country’s emergency management system looked like before the 2010 earthquake. Haiti had a fledgling national emergency management system in place - one that was heavily supported by both regional and international bodies. The earthquake of January 12, 2010, however, underscores the need for a better disaster reduction and response program, one that would address the underlying and protracted vulnerabilities of Haiti, while ushering in new winds of change that would pump fresh blood into the veins of the emergency management system. This chapter reviews the history of Haiti, including its demography and geography, and examines the hazards and factors contributing to the nation’s vulnerability to disasters. Furthermore, this chapter discusses some past disasters, Haiti’s emergency management system as well as the opportunities and the challenges confronting the system. We conclude by offering some recommendations for improving Haiti’s abilities to deal with disasters

    Nonprofit Georgia At a Glance

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    This pamphlet summarizes statistics on the nonprofit sector in Georgia, assembled and analyzed by a Nonprofit Studies Program research team. Numerous tables and exhibits report on the size and scope of the sector, variations in public charities by subsector and geography, and the characteristics and grantmaking activities of Georgia's top foundations. Analysis was based primarily on 990 and 990-PF forms filed by Georgia public charities and foundations in 2000 and 2005. This report is a part of ongoing research on public charities and foundations in the state of Georgia, made possible through a generous grant from the Wilbur and Hilda Glenn Family Foundation. Research Report Number 07-0

    History of membership associations, volunteering and the voluntary nonprofit sector

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    This chapter examines the history of the topics in its title, emphasizing the history of associations. Membership associations have been the most common type of nonprofit organization (NPO) in human history and remain so still today in all countries. Voluntary/nonprofit agencies with paid staff serving nonmembers and the general public are very recent social inventions, as are Volunteer Service Programs (see Chapter 29) and the voluntary sector concept. The chapter is structured around major historical periods in which associations have existed, beginning about 10,000 years ago, when many human societies settled down in villages from being small, nomadic, hunter-gathering bands. Thus, we discuss associations in (1) preliterate horticultural societies, (2) ancient agrarian societies, (3) recent pre-industrial societies, and (4) industrial and post-industrial societies

    Independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene, and improved complementary feeding, on child stunting and anaemia in rural Zimbabwe: a cluster-randomised trial.

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    BACKGROUND: Child stunting reduces survival and impairs neurodevelopment. We tested the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) on stunting and anaemia in in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We did a cluster-randomised, community-based, 2‚Äą√ó‚Äą2 factorial trial in two rural districts in Zimbabwe. Clusters were defined as the catchment area of between one and four village health workers employed by the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care. Women were eligible for inclusion if they permanently lived in clusters and were confirmed pregnant. Clusters were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to standard of care (52 clusters), IYCF (20 g of a small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement per day from age 6 to 18 months plus complementary feeding counselling; 53 clusters), WASH (construction of a ventilated improved pit latrine, provision of two handwashing stations, liquid soap, chlorine, and play space plus hygiene counselling; 53 clusters), or IYCF plus WASH (53 clusters). A constrained randomisation technique was used to achieve balance across the groups for 14 variables related to geography, demography, water access, and community-level sanitation coverage. Masking of participants and fieldworkers was not possible. The primary outcomes were infant length-for-age Z score and haemoglobin concentrations at 18 months of age among children born to mothers who were HIV negative during pregnancy. These outcomes were analysed in the intention-to-treat population. We estimated the effects of the interventions by comparing the two IYCF groups with the two non-IYCF groups and the two WASH groups with the two non-WASH groups, except for outcomes that had an important statistical interaction between the interventions. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01824940. FINDINGS: Between Nov 22, 2012, and March 27, 2015, 5280 pregnant women were enrolled from 211 clusters. 3686 children born to HIV-negative mothers were assessed at age 18 months (884 in the standard of care group from 52 clusters, 893 in the IYCF group from 53 clusters, 918 in the WASH group from 53 clusters, and 991 in the IYCF plus WASH group from 51 clusters). In the IYCF intervention groups, the mean length-for-age Z score was 0¬∑16 (95% CI 0¬∑08-0¬∑23) higher and the mean haemoglobin concentration was 2¬∑03 g/L (1¬∑28-2¬∑79) higher than those in the non-IYCF intervention groups. The IYCF intervention reduced the number of stunted children from 620 (35%) of 1792 to 514 (27%) of 1879, and the number of children with anaemia from 245 (13¬∑9%) of 1759 to 193 (10¬∑5%) of 1845. The WASH intervention had no effect on either primary outcome. Neither intervention reduced the prevalence of diarrhoea at 12 or 18 months. No trial-related serious adverse events, and only three trial-related adverse events, were reported. INTERPRETATION: Household-level elementary WASH interventions implemented in rural areas in low-income countries are unlikely to reduce stunting or anaemia and might not reduce diarrhoea. Implementation of these WASH interventions in combination with IYCF interventions is unlikely to reduce stunting or anaemia more than implementation of IYCF alone. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, UK Department for International Development, Wellcome Trust, Swiss Development Cooperation, UNICEF, and US National Institutes of Health.The SHINE trial is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1021542 and OPP113707); UK Department for International Development; Wellcome Trust, UK (093768/Z/10/Z, 108065/Z/15/Z and 203905/Z/16/Z); Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation; US National Institutes of Health (2R01HD060338-06); and UNICEF (PCA-2017-0002)

    Government funding and INGO autonomy: from resource dependence and tool choice perspectives

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    Using a qualitative multiple case study methodology, this study explores the relationship between government funding and INGO autonomy in three INGOs through resource dependence and tool choice frameworks. Adapting Verhoest, Peters et al.'s (2004) conceptualization of organizational autonomy as the extent of an organization's decision making capacity in matters concerning agency operations and human resource and financial management; this research regards the authors second definition of financial, structural, legal, and interventional constraints not as types of autonomy per se, but as the mechanisms through which INGOs' actual use of their decision making competencies is constrained. The findings in this research suggest that relative to other funding sources, government funding disproportionately impacts INGOs' operational and managerial autonomy. This is largely accomplished through various ex ante and ex post constraints such as, rules and regulations on inputs allocation and use, performance controls and evaluation requirements attached to government funding. This research also finds that the tool of choice used by government to finance INGO activities also steer, direct and influence INGO grantees' decisions thus positioning INGOs to incorporate government policy interests, preferences and priorities. However, INGOs can exercise their autonomy through various strategies ranging from program design, contract negotiation, and participation in advisory groups.Ph.D.Committee Chair: Dr. Dennis R. Young; Committee Member: Dr. Gordon A. Kingsley; Committee Member: Dr. Janelle Kerlin; Committee Member: Dr. John C. Thomas; Committee Member: Dr. Jorge L. Martinez-Vazque
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