104 research outputs found

    Turbulent flow in pulsed extraction columns with internals of discs and rings:Turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate during the pulsation

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    Turbulent energy parameters of single-phase pulsed flow in an extraction column with internals of immobile discs and rings (doughnuts) are studied. Simulation results are obtained by resolution of Reynolds equations coupled with k–ɛ model of turbulence. As far as pulsed flow is concerned, the evolution of space distribution of turbulent kinetic energy k and its dissipation rate ɛ during the pulsation is thoroughly studied. It is observed that the energy distribution on a contact stage changes periodically from rather homogeneous to highly inhomogeneous depending on instantaneous flow velocity. Significant difference between maximal and mean energy parameters is observed. It is supposed that the discrepancy between simulation and experimental results for the size of drops formed in the turbulent field might be attributed to mean energy presentation that smoothes the peak effects of a pulsed flow. Spatial zones and time intervals of high-turbulent kinetic energy are delimited presuming their dominant role for accurate foreseeing of size of drops in this type of equipment. It is shown that an “effective” energy level should be determined by selection over the high-energy time periods and zones in order to compensate the smoothing effect of mean energy level.The results obtained are useful for the calculation of drop size based on energy level at the stage, which is necessary for the determination of parameters of practical interest such as drop residence time and interphase mass transfer surface

    Cloud point extraction of phenol and benzyl alcohol from aqueous stream

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    Two-aqueous phase extraction of phenol and benzyl alcohol as a solute from their aqueous solutions was investigated using polyethoxylated alcohols (CiEj) as a biodegradable non-ionic surfactant. First, the phase diagrams of the binary systems, water–surfactant (Oxo-C10E3 and Oxo- C13E9), and the pseudo-binary systems, water–surfactant with a constant concentration of solute was determined. The effect of sodium chloride and sodium sulphate on water–surfactant systems were studied. According to the given surfactants concentrations and temperatures, the extraction results were expressed by the following four parameters, percentage of extracted solute, E, which reached 95 and 90% for phenol and benzyl alcohol, respectively, residual concentrations of solute, Xs,w, and the surfactant, Xt,w, in the dilute phase and volume fraction of the coacervate at the equilibrium condition, φc. The values of these parameters were determined by an analyzing central composite designs. After the first extraction process, phenol and benzyl alcohol concentrations in the effluent were reduced about ten times for the first and four times for the second, correspondingly

    Hydrodynamic and mass transfer in inertial gas–liquid flow regimes through straight and meandering millimetric square channels

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    Heat-exchanger reactors are an important part of process intensification technology. For plate geometries, one solution for intensifying transfer and increasing residence times is to construct two-dimensional meandering channels. Supported by this scientific context, the present work aims at characterising gas–liquid mass transfer in the same square millimetric meandering channel, as in Anxionnaz (2009), this constituted the preliminary step required for performing exothermic gas–liquid reactions. Firstly, the gas–liquid hydrodynamics were characterised for a water/air system. When compared to a straight channel of identical compactness and sectional-area (2×2 mm2), the meandering channel induced (i) a delay in the transition from Taylor to annular-slug regimes, (ii) a rise of 10–20% in bubble lengths while conserving almost identical slug lengths, (iii) higher deformations of bubble nose and rear due to centrifugal forces (bends). Secondly, an original method for verifying the relevancy of the plug flow model and accurately determining kla was used (measurements of concentrations in dissolved oxygen along the channel length). For the Taylor flow regime, kla increased coherently when increasing jg, and the meandering geometry had a small influence. On the contrary, this effect was found no more negligible for the slug-annular flow regime. Whatever the channels, the NTUl remained low, thus showing that, even if millimetric channels allowed to intensify kla, a special attention should be paid for generating sufficient residence times. At identical compactness, the meandering channel was found to be the most competitive. Finally, results on gas–liquid interfacial areas and mass transfer coefficients were confronted and discussed with respect to the predictions issued from the model developed by Van Baten and Krishna (2004)

    Corrigendum to "Hydrodynamic and mass transfer in inertial gas-liquid flow regimes through straight and meandering millimetric square channels" [Chem. Eng. Sci. 66 (2011) 2974-2990]

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    Heat-exchanger reactors are an important part of process intensification technology. For plate geometries, one solution for intensifying transfer and increasing residence times is to construct two-dimensional meandering channels. Supported by this scientific context, the present work aims at characterising gas-liquid mass transfer in the same square millimetric meandering channel, as in Anxionnaz (2009), this constituted the preliminary step required for performing exothermic gas-liquid reactions. Firstly, the gas-liquid hydrodynamics were characterised for a water/air system. When compared to a straight channel of identical compactness and sectional-area (2×2 mm²), the meandering channel induced (i) a delay in the transition from Taylor to annular-slug regimes, (ii) a rise of 10-20% in bubble lengths while conserving almost identical slug lengths, (iii) higher deformations of bubble nose and rear due to centrifugal forces (bends). Secondly, an original method for verifying the relevancy of the plug flow model and accurately determining kla was used (measurements of concentrations in dissolved oxygen along the channel length). For the Taylor flow regime, kla increased coherently when increasing jg, and the meandering geometry had a small influence. On the contrary, this effect was found no more negligible for the slug-annular flow regime. Whatever the channels, the NTUl remained low, thus showing that, even if millimetric channels allowed to intensify kla, a special attention should be paid for generating sufficient residence times. At identical compactness, the meandering channel was found to be the most competitive. Finally, results on gas-liquid interfacial areas and mass transfer coefficients were confronted and discussed with respect to the predictions issued from the model developed by Van Baten and Krishna (2004)

    Influence of the meandering channel geometry on the thermo-hydraulic performances of an intensified heatexchanger/reactor

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    In the global context of process intensification, heat exchanger/reactors are promising apparatuses to implement exothermic chemical syntheses. However, unlike heat exchange processes, the implementation of chemical syntheses requires to control the residence time to complete the chemistry. A way to combine the laminar regime (i.e. enough residence time) with a plug flow and the intensification of both heat and mass transfers is the corrugation of the reaction path. In this work, the experimental set-up is based on plate heat exchanger/reactor technology. 7 milli channel corrugated geometries varying the corrugation angle, the curvature radius, the developed length, the hydraulic diameter and the aspect ratio have been designed and experimentally characterized (heat transfer, mixing times, pressure drops, RTD). The objectives were to assess their respective performances to derive some correlations depending on the channel design. The results confirmed the benefits of the reaction channel corrugation. Heat and mass transfers have been intensified while maintaining a plug flow behavior in the usually laminar flow regime. Moreover, whatever the meandering channel’s curvature radius, the results highlighted the relevance of considering the Dean number as the scale-up parameter. This dimension less number, more than the Reynolds number, seems to govern the flow in the wavy channels

    Solid–liquid transport in a modified co-rotating twin-screw extruder-dynamic simulator and experimental validations

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    This work presents a dynamic transport model of a solid–liquid media through a twin-screw extruder (TSE). The application under consideration is the solid–liquid extraction of solute from raw plant substrate. Dynamic experiments are performed and compared with the simulated results for step functions on the solid feed rate and on the screw rotating speed. Despite some imperfections, results allow to validate the simulator

    Effect of microchannel aspect ratio on residence time distributions and the axial dispersion coefficient

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    The effect of microchannel aspect ratio (channel depth/channel width) on residence time distributions and the axial dispersion coefficient have been investigated for Newtonian and shear thinning non-Newtonian flow using computational fluid dynamics. The results reveal that for a fixed cross sectional area and throughput, there is a narrowing of the residence time distribution as the aspect ratio decreases. This is quantified by an axial dispersion coefficient that increases rapidly for aspect ratios less than 0.3 and then tends towards an asymptote as the aspect ratio goes to 1. The results also show that the axial dispersion coefficient is related linearly to the Reynolds number when either the aspect ratio or the mean fluid velocity is varied. However, the fluid Péclet number is a linear function of the Reynolds number only when the aspect ratio (and therefore hydraulic diameter) is varied. Globally, the results indicate that microchannels should be designed with low aspect ratios (≤ 0.3) for reduced axial dispersion

    Extraction of humic acid by coacervate: Investigation of direct and back processes

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    The two aqueous phases extraction process is widely used in environmental clean up of industrial effluents and fine chemical products for their reuse. This process can be made by cloud point of polyethoxylated alcohols and micellar solubilization phenomenon. It is commonly called “coacervate extraction” and is used, in our case, for humic acid extraction from aqueous solution at 100 mg/L. The surfactants used are alcohol polyethoxylate and alkylphenol polyethoxylate. Phase diagrams of binary water/surfactant and pseudo-binary are plotted. The extraction results are expressed by the following responses: percentage of solute extracted, E (%), residual concentrations of solute and surfactant in dilute phase (Xs,w, and Xt,w respectively) and volume fraction of coacervate at equilibrium (ϕ). For each parameter, the experimental results are fitted to empirical equations in three dimensions. The aim of this study is to find out the best compromise between E and ϕC. The comparison between experimental and calculated values allows models validation. Sodium sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) addition and pH effect are also studied. Finally, the possibility of recycling the surfactant has been proved
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