247 research outputs found

    Study to Assess the Prevalence of Soft Drinking and its Determinants among the School going Children of Gwalior city

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    Background: Over the time there has been spectrum of changes in the universe. It may be at physical, chemical and cultural level. People have adopted newer life styles like their working style, clothing’s, food habits and so on. One of the pertinent example of this newer food habits is rising consumption of soft drinks rather than traditional home made drinks. This study was aimed to find out various determinants responsible for this rising trend of soft drinking so that effective intervention can be undertaken to overcome this creeping problem. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of soft drinking consumption among the students and to assess the determinants of soft drink consumption among the students. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study. A sample of 200 students was selected from the both govt. and private schools by stratified random sampling. Then they all were interviewed by using pre tested, semi structured proforma. Later on data was analyzed manually and by using suitable statistical software. Results: Frequent drinking of soft drinks was found more among the students of private schools than govt. (p < 0.05). A significant association was found between pocket money, TV watching and frequency of soft drinking (p< 0.05).Other reasons which were found to be responsible by far for frequent soft drinking like lack of awareness regarding hazards, frequent TV watching, desire of new taste, lack of health education from the parents side etc. Conclusion: Soft drinking consumption is creeping day by day amongst the children with out knowing their hazards. And they are the future of any country so there should be effective intervention from both sides govt. as well as parents to get rid of it at earliest

    Nutritional Status of Households of Rural Field Practice Area of a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

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    Introduction: In the world as a whole there appears to be a shift from under-nourishment towards over-nourishment making more and more children, adolescents, adults and even elderly to be overweight and obese. Objectives: Study aimed to find out the age and sex wise commonness of over-weight & obesity amongst the families of an overtly different socio-economic environment and its trend in the members of one type of families. Materials & Methods: The undergraduate medical students are supposed to maintain record of individual health (including height & weight) of their own family as well as that of the allotted family. The data collected (record maintained ) by students was utilized to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Results: Out of total 291 subjects (males 168; females 123) in students own family 28.9% (28.0%; 30.1%) were overweight and 5.9% (6.0%; 5.7%) were obese. The similar figures for 262 subjects (males 143 & females 119) in the allotted families were 20.2% (18.5%; 20.2%) and 6.5% (4.2%; 8.4%) respectively. The respective percentages of under nourished individuals were 18.6 (17.9; 19.5) and 35.5 (37.8; 32.8). Thus over-nutrition was more common amongst the members of students own families (34.8% vs. 26.7%) and under-nutrition was more common amongst the members of allotted families (35.5% vs. 18.6%) For the years 2000-2003, BMI amongst individuals of students own families the under-nutrition in the age group of 15-24 years amongst males increased from 15.9% to 32.9% and over-nutrition from 13.6% to 20.5%. There was no case of overweight and obesity up to the age of 34 years in the previous analysis which was 2.6% in the present analysis Previous results demonstrated overweight to be more common in males (32.4% Vs. 24.4% in females) and obesity being more common females ( 6.3% Vs. 2.6% in females). Conclusion: Males are increasingly becoming prey of malnutrition (adolescents for under-nutrition and adults & elderly for over-nutrition. More studies covering larger samples are required to be conducted on a more frequent basis

    All Maximally Entangled Four Qubits States

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    We find an operational interpretation for the 4-tangle as a type of residual entanglement, somewhat similar to the interpretation of the 3-tangle. Using this remarkable interpretation, we are able to find the class of maximally entangled four-qubits states which is characterized by four real parameters. The states in the class are maximally entangled in the sense that their average bipartite entanglement with respect to all possible bi-partite cuts is maximal. We show that while all the states in the class maximize the average tangle, there are only few states in the class that maximize the average Tsillas or Renyi α\alpha-entropy of entanglement. Quite remarkably, we find that up to local unitaries, there exists two unique states, one maximizing the average α\alpha-Tsallis entropy of entanglement for all α2\alpha\geq 2, while the other maximizing it for all 0<α20<\alpha\leq 2 (including the von-Neumann case of α=1\alpha=1). Furthermore, among the maximally entangled four qubits states, there are only 3 maximally entangled states that have the property that for 2, out of the 3 bipartite cuts consisting of 2-qubits verses 2-qubits, the entanglement is 2 ebits and for the remaining bipartite cut the entanglement between the two groups of two qubits is 1ebit. The unique 3 maximally entangled states are the 3 cluster states that are related by a swap operator. We also show that the cluster states are the only states (up to local unitaries) that maximize the average α\alpha-Renyi entropy of entanglement for all α2\alpha\geq 2.Comment: 15 pages, 2 figures, Revised Version: many references added, an appendix added with a statement of the Kempf-Ness theore

    Specialty Preference Among Medical Students and Factors Affecting It

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    Introduction: Medical education is one of the core part of educational system of any country. Medical education requires undergraduate students to study a wide range of medical specialties. It is often assumed that students do not make their career preferences until after they have graduated from medical school. So the reasons and factors responsible for preferences need to be found out among medical students. Material and Methods: It was a Cross sectional study on 180 medical students to assess preference for specialty and factors responsible. Results: Out of total 190 medical students more or less everyone (97.89%) wanted to pursue specialization and majority of them (96.84%) wanted to pursue the same in Medical Field(p>0.05). majority of male students were interested to pursue their specialization in the field of medicine (37.63%), surgery (23.65%) and pediatrics (13.97%). On the other hand female students were more interested in medicine (24.17%), pediatrics (32.96%) and obstetrics & gynecology (24.17%)(p<0.05). Interest, by far was found to be most common factor (76.63%) responsible for the preference of particular medical specialty among all four groups of students (1st professional-25.27%, 2nd professional-75.92%, final professional-89.47%, interns-68.42%).Conclusion: It is thus concluded there are many factors playing role in the specialty selection and preference among the medical students and should be equally justified and addressed

    Entanglement of subspaces in terms of entanglement of superpositions

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    We investigate upper and lower bounds on the entropy of entanglement of a superposition of bipartite states as a function of the individual states in the superposition. In particular, we extend the results in [G. Gour, arxiv.org:0704.1521 (2007)] to superpositions of several states rather than just two. We then investigate the entanglement in a subspace as a function of its basis states: we find upper bounds for the largest entanglement in a subspace and demonstrate that no such lower bound for the smallest entanglement exists. Finally, we consider entanglement of superpositions using measures of entanglement other than the entropy of entanglement.Comment: 7 pages, no figure

    An Assessment of Knowledge and Practices Regarding Tuberculosis in the Context of RNTCP Among Non Allopathic Practitioners in Gwalior District

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    Introduction: India has the highest TB burden accounting for one-fifth of the global incidence with an estimated 1.98 million cases. Non- allopathic practitioners are the major service providers especially in rural and peri-urban areas, treating not just patients of diarrhea, respiratory infections and abdominal Pain but also of tuberculosis. Objectives: To assess the knowledge of sign and symptoms of TB and its management as per the RNTCP guidelines and to assess the practicing pattern regarding tuberculosis. Material & Methods: The present was carried out among the registered non allopathic practitioners providing their services in Gwalior District during the study period. A total of 150 non allopathic practitioners of various methods from both government and private sectors were interviewed using a pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The information was collected on the General profile of the participant, knowledge about signs and symptoms of TB and its management, practices commonly adopted in the management and their views on involvement of non allopathic practitioners in RNTCP programme. Result: The average score of government practitioners was 7.3 compared to 4.6 by private practitioners. There was a statistically significant difference between the two group on issue related to the management of TB patients as per the RNTCP guidelines. Government practitioners relied mostly on sputum examination for diagnosis and follow up compared to private practitioners who chose other modalities like X-ray, blood examination for this work. Conclusion: There is a gap in knowledge and practices of practitioners of both the sectors. Some serious efforts were required to upgrade the knowledge of non allopathic practitioners if the government is serious about controlling tuberculosis in India

    Extensive Entropy Bounds

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    It is shown that, for systems in which the entropy is an extensive function of the energy and volume, the Bekenstein and the holographic entropy bounds predict new results. More explicitly, the Bekenstein entropy bound leads to the entropy of thermal radiation (the Unruh-Wald bound) and the spherical entropy bound implies the "causal entropy bound". Surprisingly, the first bound shows a close relationship between black hole physics and the Stephan-Boltzmann law (for the energy and entropy flux densities of the radiation emitted by a hot blackbody). Furthermore, we find that the number of different species of massless fields is bounded by 104\sim 10^{4}.Comment: 8 pages, revtex, To appear in Phys. Rev.

    Bounds on Bipartitiely Shared Entanglement Reduced from Superposed Tripartite Quantum States

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    For a tripartite pure state superposed by two individual states, the bipartitely shared entanglement can always be achieved by local measurements of the third party. Consider the different aims of the third party, i.e. maximizing or minimizing the bipartitely shared entanglement, we find bounds on both the possible bipartitely shared entanglement of the superposition state in terms of the corresponding entanglement of the two states being superposed. In particular, by choosing the concurrence as bipartite entanglement measure, we obtain calculable bounds for tripartite (22n)(2\otimes 2\otimes n) -dimensional cases.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures. Accepted by Euro. Phys. J.

    Entropy bounds for charged and rotating systems

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    It was shown in a previous work that, for systems in which the entropy is an extensive function of the energy and volume, the Bekenstein and the holographic entropy bounds predict new results. In this paper, we go further and derive improved upper bounds to the entropy of {\it extensive} charged and rotating systems. Furthermore, it is shown that for charged and rotating systems (including non-extensive ones), the total energy that appear in both the Bekenstein entropy bound (BEB) and the causal entropy bound (CEB) can be replaced by the {\it internal} energy of the system. In addition, we propose possible corrections to the BEB and the CEB.Comment: 12 pages, revte

    Thermal Fluctuations and Black Hole Entropy

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    In this paper, we consider the effect of thermal fluctuations on the entropy of both neutral and charged black holes. We emphasize the distinction between fixed and fluctuating charge systems; using a canonical ensemble to describe the former and a grand canonical ensemble to study the latter. Our novel approach is based on the philosophy that the black hole quantum spectrum is an essential component in any such calculation. For definiteness, we employ a uniformly spaced area spectrum, which has been advocated by Bekenstein and others in the literature. The generic results are applied to some specific models; in particular, various limiting cases of an (arbitrary-dimensional) AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. We find that the leading-order quantum correction to the entropy can consistently be expressed as the logarithm of the classical quantity. For a small AdS curvature parameter and zero net charge, it is shown that, independent of the dimension, the logarithmic prefactor is +1/2 when the charge is fixed but +1 when the charge is fluctuating.We also demonstrate that, in the grand canonical framework, the fluctuations in the charge are large, ΔQΔASBH1/2\Delta Q\sim\Delta A\sim S_{BH}^{1/2}, even when =0 =0. A further implication of this framework is that an asymptotically flat, non-extremal black hole can never achieve a state of thermal equilibrium.Comment: 25 pages, Revtex; references added and corrected, and some minor change
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