58 research outputs found

    Dwarf Galaxies in Voids: Dark Matter Halos and Gas Cooling

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    Galaxy surveys have shown that luminous galaxies are mainly distributed in large filaments and galaxy clusters. The remaining large volumes are virtually devoid of luminous galaxies. This is in concordance with the formation of the large-scale structure in Universe as derived from cosmological simulations. However, the numerical results indicate that cosmological voids are abundantly populated with dark matter haloes which may in principle host dwarf galaxies. Observational efforts have in contrast revealed, that voids are apparently devoid of dwarf galaxies. We investigate the formation of dwarf galaxies in voids by hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Due to the cosmic ultra-violet background radiation low-mass haloes show generally are reduced baryon fraction. We determine the characteristic mass below which dwarf galaxies are baryon deficient. We show that the circular velocity below which the accretion of baryons is suppressed is approximately 40 km/s. The suppressed baryon accretion is caused by the photo-heating due to the UV-background. We set up a spherical halo model and show that the effective equation of state of the gas in the periphery of dwarf galaxies determines the characteristic mass. This implies that any process which heats the gas around dwarf galaxies increases the characteristic mass and thus reduces the number of observable dwarf galaxies.Comment: 23 pages. To appear in Advances in Astronomy, Dwarf-Galaxy Cosmology issu

    Too small to form a galaxy: How the UV background determines the baryon fraction

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    The cosmic ultraviolet background (UVB) heats the intergalactic medium (IGM), as a result the gas in dark matter halos below a certain mass is too hot to cool within a Hubble time. The UVB effectively suppresses the formation of dwarf galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations we show that photo heating leads to small baryon fractions in halos below ~ 6x10^9 h^{-1}M_sun, independent of the cosmic environment. The simulations are carried out assuming a homogeneous UVB with flux densities as given by Haardt & Madau (1996). A halo may stop to condense gas significantly after the universe is reionised, namely when its mass falls below the characteristic mass scale set by the photo heating. Assuming a spherical halo model we derive this characteristic mass analytically and identify the main mechanisms that prevent the gas from cooling in small halos. The theoretically derived characteristic mass is smaller than the one obtained from observations. Increasing the energy per ionising photon by a factor between four and eight would be sufficient to reconcile both. This is equivalent to an average temperature of the IGM of ~ 10^4 K. In this sense the faint end of the luminosity function may serve as a calorimeter for the IGM.Comment: To appear in Proceedings of IAU Symp #244, "Dark Galaxies and Lost Baryons", June 2007, 5 pages including 3 figure

    Confrontation of a Double Inflationary Cosmological Model with Observations

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    CDM models with non-scale-free step-like spectra of adiabatic perturbations produced in a realistic double inflationary model are compared with recent observational data. The model contains two additional free parameters relatively to the standard CDM model with the flat (n=1n=1) initial spectrum. Results of the COBE experiment are used for the determination of a free overall spectrum normalization. Then predictions for the galaxy biasing parameter, the variance for "counts in cells", the galaxy angular correlation function, bulk flow peculiar velocities and the Mach number test are obtained. Also considered are conditions for galaxy and quasar formation. Observational data strongly restricts allowed values for the two remaining model parameters. However, a non-empty region for them satisfying all considered tests is found.Comment: 17 pages and 4 figures obtainable by request, LaTex, AIP 93-1

    The accuracy of parameters determined with the core-sampling method: application to Voronoi tessellations

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    The large-scale matter distribution represents a complex network of structure elements such as voids, clusters, filaments, and sheets. This network is spanned by a point distribution. The global properties of the point process can be measured by different statistical methods, which, however, do not describe directly the structure elements. The morphology of structure elements is an important property of the point distribution. Here we apply the core-sampling method to various Voronoi tessellations. Using the core-sampling method we identify one- and two-dimensional structure elements (filaments and sheets) in these Voronoi tessellations and reconstruct their mean separation along random straight lines. We compare the results of the core-sampling method with the a priori known structure elements of the Voronoi tessellations under consideration and find good agreement between the expected and found structure parameters, even in the presence of substantial noise. We conclude that the core-sampling method is a potentially powerful tool to investigate the distribution of such structure elements like filaments and walls of galaxies.Comment: 14 pages (Latex) with 6 figures, the complete paper with 8 figures is available at http://kosmos.aip.de/~got/projects.html {Characteristical scales in point distributions}, Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, accepte

    Reconstructing cosmological initial conditions from galaxy peculiar velocities. I. Reverse Zeldovich Approximation

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    We propose a new method to recover the cosmological initial conditions of the presently observed galaxy distribution, which can serve to run constrained simulations of the Local Universe. Our method, the Reverse Zeldovich Approximation (RZA), can be applied to radial galaxy peculiar velocity data and extends the previously used Constrained Realizations (CR) method by adding a Lagrangian reconstruction step. The RZA method consists of applying the Zeldovich approximation in reverse to galaxy peculiar velocities to estimate the cosmic displacement field and the initial linear matter distribution from which the present-day Local Universe evolved.We test our method with a mock survey taken from a cosmological simulation. We show that the halo peculiar velocities at z = 0 are close to the linear prediction of the Zeldovich approximation, if a grouping is applied to the data to remove virial motions. We find that the addition of RZA to the CR method significantly improves the reconstruction of the initial conditions. The RZA is able to recover the correct initial positions of the velocity tracers with a median error of only 1.36 Mpc/h in our test simulation. For realistic sparse and noisy data, this median increases to 5 Mpc/h. This is a significant improvement over the previous approach of neglecting the displacement field, which introduces errors on a scale of 10 Mpc/h or even higher. Applying the RZA method to the upcoming high-quality observational peculiar velocity catalogues will generate much more precise constrained simulations of the Local Universe.Comment: Accepted for MNRAS 2012 December 1
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