386 research outputs found

    Burgers Turbulence with Large-scale Forcing

    Full text link
    Burgers turbulence supported by white-in-time random forcing at low wavenumbers is studied analytically and by computer simulation. It is concluded that the probability density Q of velocity gradient displays four asymptotic regimes at very large Reynolds number: (A) a region of large positive gradient where Q decays rapidly (reduction of gradient by stretching); (B) an intermediate region of negative gradient where Q falls off as the inverse third power of gradient (transient inviscid steepening of negative gradient); (C) an outer power-law region of negative gradient where Q falls off as the reciprocal of gradient (shoulders of mature shocks); (D) a final region of large gradient where Q decays very rapidly (interior of mature shocks). The probability density of velocity difference across an interval r, divided by r, lies on Q throughout regions A and B and into the middle of C, for small enough inertial-range r.Comment: Revtex (8 pages) with 11 postscript figures (separate file

    γ線照射処理した Picea abies の仮道管壁の構造

    Get PDF
    When a wood specimen (Picea abies (L.) KARST) was γ-irradiated (655 Mrad), microfibrillar texture as seen in the untreated wood was still clearly observed by replica on the surface of the tracheid, while this wood became non-crystalline with X-ray diffractioIn. In transverse and longitudinal sections of the tracheid in γ-irradiated wood microfibrils were observed by the method of block negative staining with uranyl acetate. The disintegration of γ-irradated wood produced many short broken microfibrils. The above facts indicate that γ-irradiation produces many defects even within the crystalline region of microfibrils while retaining their original shapeγ線照射 (655 Mrad) 処理材 〔Picea abies (L.) KARST〕 のX線回折図では結晶性ピークを示さないのに, 電子顕微鏡でレプリカ法により観察すると, 仮道管内壁面には顕著なミクロフィブリルの配向がみられた。本報では, γ線処理材の仮道管にみられるこのようなミクロフィブリル像の実体を明らかにしようとした。γ線処理材を酢酸ウラニルでブロック負染色法により電子顕微鏡観察すると, 仮道管の横断面・縦断面ともにミクロフィブリルが白い斑点状 或いは線状に存在することが確認された。さらにこの試料を解体して観察すると, 短破片状のミクロフィブリルがみられた。以上の結果から, このγ線処理材においては, ミクロフィブリル中に多くの結晶欠陥が存在するが, なおミクロフィブリルの形態は保持されているものと推定される

    Novel High-Temperature Alkaline Water Electrolysis Using Molten KOH–H₂O System

    Get PDF
    To improve water electrolysis efficiency, we investigated the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER) at a Ni electrode in a molten KOH–H₂O system (85:15 wt%, 65:35 mol%) at a high temperature (150 °C). The overpotentials for the HER and OER at 500 mA cm⁻² were significantly reduced, by 261 mV and 75 mV, respectively, in the novel system relative to those obtained in a conventional aqueous solution system (30 wt% KOH, 80 °C). The decreases in polarization were attributed predominantly to kinetic effects, including a change in the rate-determining steps, on the HER and OER with the change of electrolytes

    Novel inorganic ionic liquids possessing low melting temperatures and wide electrochemical windows: Binary mixtures of alkali bis(fluorosulfonyl)amides

    Get PDF
    Thermal properties of alkali bis(fluorosulfonyl)amides, MFSI (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs), have been investigated. Binary phase diagrams of LiFSI–KFSI and NaFSI–KFSI systems have been constructed. Eutectic point for LiFSI–KFSI is 338 K at (xLi, xK) = (0.45, 0.55) and, that for NaFSI–KFSI is 330 K at (xNa, xK) = (0.45, 0.55). The electrochemical window of the eutectic LiFSI–KFSI is as wide as 6.0 V at 348 K with the cathode limit being lithium metal deposition. The electrochemical window of the eutectic NaFSI–KFSI is 5.0 V at 340 K with sodium metal deposition at the cathode limit. These new inorganic ionic liquids are highly promising for various electrochemical applications

    Thermal Properties of Mixed Alkali Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amides

    Get PDF
    Phase diagrams of binary mixtures of alkali bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amides have been constructed, and their eutectic compositions and temperatures have been determined. It has been revealed that the molten salt electrolytes having the melting points in the intermediate temperature range (373 to 473) K are easily formed by simple mixing of two kinds of single alkali bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide salts. The 1:1 or 3:1 double salt is occasionally formed for some binary systems

    Reactivation from latency displays HIV particle budding at plasma membrane, accompanying CD44 upregulation and recruitment

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>It has been accepted that HIV buds from the cell surface in T lymphocytes, whereas in macrophages it buds into intracellular endosomes. Recent studies, on the other hand, suggest that HIV preferentially buds from the cell surface even in monocytic cells. However, most studies are based on observations in acutely infected cells and little is known about HIV budding concomitant with reactivation from latency. Such studies would provide a better understanding of a reservoir for HIV.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We observed HIV budding in latently infected T lymphocytic and monocytic cell lines following TNF-α stimulation and examined the upregulation of host factors that may be involved in particle production. Electron microscopy analysis revealed that reactivation of latently infected J1.1 cells (latently infected Jurkat cells with HIV-1) and U1 cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1) displayed HIV particle budding predominantly at the plasma membrane, a morphology that is similar to particle budding in acutely infected Jurkat and U937 cells. When mRNA expression levels were quantified by qRT-PCR, we found that particle production from reactivated J1.1 and U1 cells was accompanied by CD44 upregulation. This upregulation was similarly observed when Jurkat and U937 cells were acutely infected with HIV-1 but not when just stimulated with TNF-α, suggesting that CD44 upregulation was linked with HIV production but not with cell stimulation. The molecules in endocytic pathways such as CD63 and HRS were also upregulated when U1 cells were reactivated and U937 cells were acutely infected with HIV-1. Confocal microscopy revealed that these upregulated host molecules were recruited to and accumulated at the sites where mature particles were formed at the plasma membrane.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our study indicates that HIV particles are budded at the plasma membrane upon reactivation from latency, a morphology that is similar to particle budding in acute infection. Our data also suggest that HIV expression may lead to the upregulation of certain host cell molecules that are recruited to sites of particle assembly, possibly coordinating particle production.</p

    High Subsidence Rate After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Using a Zweymüller-type Noncemented Implant With a Matte Surface

    Get PDF
    INTRODUCTION: The surface topography is one key factor that affects the initial fixation of prosthesis in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We aimed to evaluate the mid-term results of a Zweymüller-type noncemented femoral implant (Elance stem) that had a matte surface with a target average roughness of 1.0 to 2.5 μm. The prosthesis was subjected to alkali and heat treatments to enhance its bone-bonding property. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 30 THAs (27 patients) done using an Elance stem from September 2012 to October 2014 were evaluated clinically and radiographically for a mean follow-up of 6.3 ± 1.7 years after the index THA. RESULTS: Stem revision was indicated for six hips (20%). The survival rate with stem revision for any reason was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 68.9%-94.8%) at 5 years. Stem subsidence >5 mm was noted in 17 hips (56.7%). The survival rate with stem subsidence >5 mm as the end point was 46.6% (95% confidence interval, 29.9%-64.2%) at 5 years. CONCLUSION: The Zweymüller-type noncemented stem with a low-roughness matte surface demonstrated a high subsidence rate, although the bone-bonding property was potentially enhanced by the alkali and heat treatments. Surgeons should be aware that an insufficient surface roughness could lead to poor mechanical fixation of the noncemented stem, even with an appropriate stem geometry and surface chemistry

    Difference in Therapeutic Strategies for Joint‐Preserving Surgery for Non‐Traumatic Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head between the United States and Japan: A Review of the Literature

    Get PDF
    For patients with non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), core decompression (CD) and bone grafts (BG) are mainly performed in the West, while osteotomy is found to be predominant in Japan. It is not well recognized how the surgical procedures for joint preservation in patients with ONFH are completely different between the United States and Japan. This paper identifies the contexts and the differences in treatment strategies for ONFH between the two countries. We compared the surgical trends of the two countries over three periods, 1997-2001, 2002-2006, and 2007-2011 (the US data for the third period was 2007-2008), based on a 2014 US paper and a 2013 national publication in Japan. We compared the details of surgery for non-traumatic ONFH under the same conditions in the two reports. For the period 1997-2001, the rates of surgeries for ONFH in the US were as follows: total hip arthroplasty (THA), 86%; CD, 10%; and osteotomy, 0.4%. In Japan, THA was 61%, osteotomy 38%, and CD 0%. For the recent period, 2007-2011 (US 2007-2008), the rate of THA was 91%, CD 6%, and osteotomy 0.1%, in the US, compared to a THA rate of 73%, CD 0%, and osteotomy 26% in Japan. The results for the interim period (2002-2006) were between the old and new data. The use of joint-preserving surgery for ONFH differs greatly between the US and Japan. The first-line joint-preserving surgery was CD in the US and osteotomy in Japan. Each procedure was rarely done in the other country. From about 2000 to 2010, the percentage of THA increased in both countries. The proportion of joint-preserving surgery (CD in the US and osteotomy in Japan) declined. The decrease in joint-preserving procedures may be largely attributed to improved long-term outcomes of THA due to technological advances. There is also a reluctance for young ONFH patients to undergo joint-preserving procedures, such as osteotomy, that require long-term hospitalization

    Discrepancy in the Responsiveness to Hip Range of Motion Between Harris and Oxford Hip Scores

    Get PDF
    Background: The primary objectives of total hip arthroplasty (THA) include mobility improvement and pain relief; however, the correlation between hip range of motion (ROM) and function remains unclear. We aimed to explore how ROM affects hip functions after THA and compare the responsiveness of each component of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and Oxford Hip Score (OHS) to preoperative and postoperative ROM. Methods: This prospective observational study involved 120 patients who underwent unilateral THA. Univariate regression analyses were performed using the University of California Los Angeles activity score and mHHS and OHS to determine the effects of preoperative and postoperative flex ROM on clinical scores at 12 months. Multivariate regressions were performed to adjust for the confounding effects of patient factors: age, sex, body mass index, and diagnosis. Results: A larger preoperative flexion ROM was associated with a higher score in the mHHS socks component (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.26, P = .0041) at 12 months; the effect on the OHS socks component was not significant (P = .34). A larger flexion ROM at 12 months was associated with higher scores in the mHHS support (SC = 0.21, P = .026), stairs (SC = 0.35, P = .0002), and socks (SC = 0.32, P = .0007) components but had no significant effect on any OHS component. The effects of ROM on University of California Los Angeles activity score were limited. Conclusions: A discrepancy was noted in the responsiveness to ROM between the two major measurement tools; this difference might be because mHHS and OHS are surgeon- and patient-administered questionnaires, respectively. This discrepancy also suggests that the patients have higher satisfaction than that assumed by the surgeons