830 research outputs found

    Spectral clustering algorithm for the allometric extension model

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    The spectral clustering algorithm is often used as a binary clustering method for unclassified data by applying the principal component analysis. To study theoretical properties of the algorithm, the assumption of conditional homoscedasticity is often supposed in existing studies. However, this assumption is restrictive and often unrealistic in practice. Therefore, in this paper, we consider the allometric extension model, that is, the directions of the first eigenvectors of two covariance matrices and the direction of the difference of two mean vectors coincide, and we provide a non-asymptotic bound of the error probability of the spectral clustering algorithm for the allometric extension model. As a byproduct of the result, we obtain the consistency of the clustering method in high-dimensional settings.Comment: 20 page


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    京都大学0048新制・課程博士博士(医学)甲第18868号医博第3979号新制||医||1008(附属図書館)31819京都大学大学院医学研究科医学専攻(主査)教授 横出 正之, 教授 坂田 隆造, 教授 川村 孝学位規則第4条第1項該当Doctor of Medical ScienceKyoto UniversityDFA


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    The title compound, C43H32F6N2S2, is a new symmetrical photochromic diaryl­ethene derivative with 9-ethyl­carbazol-3-yl substituents. The mol­ecule adopts a photoactive anti­parallel conformation [Irie (2000). Chem. Rev. 100, 1685–1716; Kobatake et al. (2002). Chem. Commun. pp. 2804–2805], with a dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two thio­phene rings of 56.23 (6)°. The distance between the two reactive C atoms is 3.497 (3) Å. In the crystal, two mol­ecules are associated through a pair of C—H⋯F inter­molecular hydrogen bonds, forming a centrosymmetric dimer. Dimers are linked by weak π–π inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8872 (13) Å], forming chains along the c axis

    High Subsidence Rate After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty Using a Zweymüller-type Noncemented Implant With a Matte Surface

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    INTRODUCTION: The surface topography is one key factor that affects the initial fixation of prosthesis in total hip arthroplasty (THA). We aimed to evaluate the mid-term results of a Zweymüller-type noncemented femoral implant (Elance stem) that had a matte surface with a target average roughness of 1.0 to 2.5 μm. The prosthesis was subjected to alkali and heat treatments to enhance its bone-bonding property. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 30 THAs (27 patients) done using an Elance stem from September 2012 to October 2014 were evaluated clinically and radiographically for a mean follow-up of 6.3 ± 1.7 years after the index THA. RESULTS: Stem revision was indicated for six hips (20%). The survival rate with stem revision for any reason was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 68.9%-94.8%) at 5 years. Stem subsidence >5 mm was noted in 17 hips (56.7%). The survival rate with stem subsidence >5 mm as the end point was 46.6% (95% confidence interval, 29.9%-64.2%) at 5 years. CONCLUSION: The Zweymüller-type noncemented stem with a low-roughness matte surface demonstrated a high subsidence rate, although the bone-bonding property was potentially enhanced by the alkali and heat treatments. Surgeons should be aware that an insufficient surface roughness could lead to poor mechanical fixation of the noncemented stem, even with an appropriate stem geometry and surface chemistry

    Difference in Therapeutic Strategies for Joint‐Preserving Surgery for Non‐Traumatic Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head between the United States and Japan: A Review of the Literature

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    For patients with non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), core decompression (CD) and bone grafts (BG) are mainly performed in the West, while osteotomy is found to be predominant in Japan. It is not well recognized how the surgical procedures for joint preservation in patients with ONFH are completely different between the United States and Japan. This paper identifies the contexts and the differences in treatment strategies for ONFH between the two countries. We compared the surgical trends of the two countries over three periods, 1997-2001, 2002-2006, and 2007-2011 (the US data for the third period was 2007-2008), based on a 2014 US paper and a 2013 national publication in Japan. We compared the details of surgery for non-traumatic ONFH under the same conditions in the two reports. For the period 1997-2001, the rates of surgeries for ONFH in the US were as follows: total hip arthroplasty (THA), 86%; CD, 10%; and osteotomy, 0.4%. In Japan, THA was 61%, osteotomy 38%, and CD 0%. For the recent period, 2007-2011 (US 2007-2008), the rate of THA was 91%, CD 6%, and osteotomy 0.1%, in the US, compared to a THA rate of 73%, CD 0%, and osteotomy 26% in Japan. The results for the interim period (2002-2006) were between the old and new data. The use of joint-preserving surgery for ONFH differs greatly between the US and Japan. The first-line joint-preserving surgery was CD in the US and osteotomy in Japan. Each procedure was rarely done in the other country. From about 2000 to 2010, the percentage of THA increased in both countries. The proportion of joint-preserving surgery (CD in the US and osteotomy in Japan) declined. The decrease in joint-preserving procedures may be largely attributed to improved long-term outcomes of THA due to technological advances. There is also a reluctance for young ONFH patients to undergo joint-preserving procedures, such as osteotomy, that require long-term hospitalization

    Discrepancy in the Responsiveness to Hip Range of Motion Between Harris and Oxford Hip Scores

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    Background: The primary objectives of total hip arthroplasty (THA) include mobility improvement and pain relief; however, the correlation between hip range of motion (ROM) and function remains unclear. We aimed to explore how ROM affects hip functions after THA and compare the responsiveness of each component of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS) and Oxford Hip Score (OHS) to preoperative and postoperative ROM. Methods: This prospective observational study involved 120 patients who underwent unilateral THA. Univariate regression analyses were performed using the University of California Los Angeles activity score and mHHS and OHS to determine the effects of preoperative and postoperative flex ROM on clinical scores at 12 months. Multivariate regressions were performed to adjust for the confounding effects of patient factors: age, sex, body mass index, and diagnosis. Results: A larger preoperative flexion ROM was associated with a higher score in the mHHS socks component (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.26, P = .0041) at 12 months; the effect on the OHS socks component was not significant (P = .34). A larger flexion ROM at 12 months was associated with higher scores in the mHHS support (SC = 0.21, P = .026), stairs (SC = 0.35, P = .0002), and socks (SC = 0.32, P = .0007) components but had no significant effect on any OHS component. The effects of ROM on University of California Los Angeles activity score were limited. Conclusions: A discrepancy was noted in the responsiveness to ROM between the two major measurement tools; this difference might be because mHHS and OHS are surgeon- and patient-administered questionnaires, respectively. This discrepancy also suggests that the patients have higher satisfaction than that assumed by the surgeons

    Function and regulation of the Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene PISTILLATA

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    Mutations in the PISTILLATA (PI) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana cause homeotic conversion of petals to sepals and of stamens to carpels. It is thus classed as a B function floral homeotic gene and acts together with the product of the other known B function gene, APETALA3 (AP3). We have cloned PI and determined the time and places of its expression in developing flowers. Surprisingly, the initial patterns of PI and AP3 expression are different. By positive regulatory interactions between PI and AP3, later expression patterns are coincident or nearly coincident. The pattern of PI expression also depends on the activity of the floral development genes APETALA2 and SUPERMAN and on the activity of PI itself. The PI and APETALA3 proteins specifically associate in solution and so may act together in regulating PI and other genes