51 research outputs found

    Head Depth and Head Speed During Competitive Backstroke Ledge Starts

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    Recently, a commercially available starting ‘ledge’ designed to reduce foot slippage during the execution of the backstroke start was introduced in competitive swimming. For the purpose of identifying potential safety consequences, the present study investigated the effect of ledge use on head depths, speeds, and distances in backstroke starts of athletes with no prior or only novice familiarity of the ledge. Competitive backstroke starts were performed with and without ledges by high school-aged (14.5 to 19.2 yr, N = 61) swimmers in 1.52 m of water during a closed testing session. A SIMI Reality Motion System in a calibrated space using three cameras was employed for filming starts. Dependent measures were initial head height (Yset), distance from wall at entry (Xentry), entry angle (Angleentry), horizontal velocity at head entry (XVelentry), resultant velocity at entry (ResVelentry), maximum depth of the center of the head (Ymhd), resultant velocity at maximum head depth (ResVelmhd), and distance from the wall at maximum head depth (Xmhd). The ledge (L) condition showed significant increases compared to the non-ledge (NL) condition in Xentry (L 1.61 ± 0.59 m, NL 1.50 ± 0.53 m, p \u3c .001), ResVelentry (L 3.44 ± 0.97 m·s-1, NL 3.08 ± 1.00 m·s-1, p \u3c .001), Angleentry (L 43.13 ± 16.97°, NL 39.66 ± 18.11°, p = .030), Xmhd (L 4.18 ± 0.58 m, NL 4.09 ± 0.63 m, p = .008), and Ymhd (L 0.54 ± 0.21 m, NL 0.49 ± 0.18,

    Biallelic RIPK1 mutations in humans cause severe immunodeficiency, arthritis, and intestinal inflammation.

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    RIPK1 (receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1) is a master regulator of signaling pathways leading to inflammation and cell death and is of medical interest as a drug target. We report four patients from three unrelated families with complete RIPK1 deficiency caused by rare homozygous mutations. The patients suffered from recurrent infections, early-onset inflammatory bowel disease, and progressive polyarthritis. They had immunodeficiency with lymphopenia and altered production of various cytokines revealed by whole-blood assays. In vitro, RIPK1-deficient cells showed impaired mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and cytokine secretion and were prone to necroptosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation reversed cytokine production defects and resolved clinical symptoms in one patient. Thus, RIPK1 plays a critical role in the human immune system

    American Thoracic Society and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Implementation Research Workshop Report

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    To advance implementation research (IR) in respiratory, sleep, and critical care medicine, the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases from the NHLBI cosponsored an Implementation Research Workshop on May 17, 2014. The goals of IR are to understand the barriers and facilitators of integrating new evidence into healthcare practices and to develop and test strategies that systematically target these factors to accelerate the adoption of evidence-based care. Throughout the workshop, presenters provided examples of IR that focused on the rate of adoption of evidence-based practices, the feasibility and acceptability of interventions to patients and other stakeholders who make healthcare decisions, the fidelity with which practitioners use specific interventions, the effects of specific barriers on the sustainability of an intervention, and the implications of their research to inform policies to improve patients’ access to high-quality care. During the discussions that ensued, investigators’ experience led to recommendations underscoring the importance of identifying and involving key stakeholders throughout the research process, ensuring that those who serve as reviewers understand the tenets of IR, managing staff motivation and turnover, and tackling the challenges of scaling up interventions across multiple settings

    Commentaries on viewpoint : physiology and fast marathons

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    Personalized early detection and prevention of breast cancer: ENVISION consensus statement

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    Abstract: The European Collaborative on Personalized Early Detection and Prevention of Breast Cancer (ENVISION) brings together several international research consortia working on different aspects of the personalized early detection and prevention of breast cancer. In a consensus conference held in 2019, the members of this network identified research areas requiring development to enable evidence-based personalized interventions that might improve the benefits and reduce the harms of existing breast cancer screening and prevention programmes. The priority areas identified were: 1) breast cancer subtype-specific risk assessment tools applicable to women of all ancestries; 2) intermediate surrogate markers of response to preventive measures; 3) novel non-surgical preventive measures to reduce the incidence of breast cancer of poor prognosis; and 4) hybrid effectiveness–implementation research combined with modelling studies to evaluate the long-term population outcomes of risk-based early detection strategies. The implementation of such programmes would require health-care systems to be open to learning and adapting, the engagement of a diverse range of stakeholders and tailoring to societal norms and values, while also addressing the ethical and legal issues. In this Consensus Statement, we discuss the current state of breast cancer risk prediction, risk-stratified prevention and early detection strategies, and their implementation. Throughout, we highlight priorities for advancing each of these areas