564 research outputs found

    Marketing, cooperatives and price heterogeneity: evidence from the CIS dairy sector

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    Drawing on survey data, this paper identifies the determinants of variations in farm gate milk prices for three CIS countries (Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine). We apply a multi-level modeling approach, specifically a bootstrapped mixed-effects linear regression model. The analysis suggests three main strategies to improve the price received by farmers for their output: consolidation, competition for output and stable supply chain relationships. In Armenia and Ukraine selling through a marketing cooperative has a significant, positive, albeit modest, effect on farm gate milk prices. In all three countries studied, the size of dairy operations, trust and contracting also affect positively the prices received by farmers.price heterogeneity, milk, cooperatives, Armenia, Moldova, Ukraine, Agribusiness, Demand and Price Analysis, Marketing, O13, P32, Q13,

    Growth and performance of small and medium sized enterprises in rural peripheral locations

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    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/874 on 01.02.2017 by CS (TIS)Since the 1970s the number of small firms in the UK has risen, but at temporally and spatially uneven rates. These trends have heightened interest in the role of local economies in shaping small firm growth and performance. This thesis considers the growth and performance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) based in rural peripheral locations in the UK. In measuring this, quantitative survey work was undertaken in rural core as well as rural peripheral localities, with the former acting as a benchmark for comparison. lJtilising returns from standardised postal questiormaires both the performance of the agricultural and non-agricultural business sectors can be compared. By contrasting the performance of both sectors the distribution of existing public sector funds aimed at rural local economic development (LED) is called into question. There is little support for the notion that farm diversification will contribute in any meaningful way to LED. When non-agricultural SMEs in rural peripheral localities are compared with enterprises of a similar age and standard industrial classification (SIC) code in core localities, few significant spatial variations are apparent in business strategy and structure. The main problem for rural peripheral locations would appear to lie not with the firms they already have, but rather the ones which are not present, and in particular their relative structural weakness of fewer medium sized manufacturing companies. When government SME policy is examined, the institutional proliferation and increased government spending which occurred during the 1980s did little to solve this structural weakness. It is contended that a key need for SMEs based in rural peripheral localities is to transcend restricted local markets and the main barriers, and possible solutions to, this process is drawn out in the concluding sections.University of Plymouth,the Cornwall Education and Research Trust and Teesdale District Council

    Patriot Games? Determinants of Responses to Chinese and Foreign Sponsors of the Beijing Olympics

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    The paper assesses the generalizability of Speed and Thompson’s (2000) model of the determinants of sponsorship response to an important and growing market for sponsorship (China). It extends the model by considering differences in effects for foreign and domestically owned sponsors and the role of patriotism. The findings confirm that personal liking for the sponsored event, status of the event, attitude to the sponsor, perceived sincerity of the sponsor and perceived fit between the sponsor and the event are significant factors underpinning positive responses. In contrast to Speed and Thompson (2000), ubiquity of the sponsor is not significant for China. Whether the sponsor is of domestic or foreign origin is identified as an important moderator of sponsorship effects but there is no consistent evidence that foreign sponsors suffer from relatively poorer outcomes in emerging markets compared to domestically owned rivals

    Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children\u27s attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

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    BACKGROUND: Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. METHODS: A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children\u27s school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children\u27s school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children\u27s self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. CONCLUSIONS: A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children\u27s school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children\u27s short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement

    Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p>Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school) will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December). The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades), sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes.</p> <p>Trial Registration Number</p> <p>Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12609000854235</p