4,190 research outputs found

    Ecosystem simulation

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    SCREENING FOR HEPATITIS C Response from Hepatitis C Trust, BASL, BIA, BVHG, BSG, and BHIVA to article asking whether widespread screening for hepatitis C is justified

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    This is the peer reviewed published version of the following article: Response from Hepatitis C Trust, BASL, BIA, BVHG, BSG, and BHIVA to article asking whether widespread screening for hepatitis C is justified, which has been published in final form at 10.1136/bmj.h998. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with BMJ's Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by/4.0

    Accounting for decarbonisation and reducing capital at risk in the S&P500

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    This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of the following article: Colin Haslam, Nick Tsitsianis, Glen Lehman, Tord Andersson, and John Malamatenios, ‘Accounting for decarbonisation and reducing capital at risk in the S&P500’, Accounting Forum, Vol. 42 91): 119-129, March 2018. Under embargo until 7 August 2019. The final, definitive version is available online at doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.accfor.2018.01.004.This article accounts for carbon emissions in the S&P 500 and explores the extent to which capital is at risk from decarbonising value chains. At a global level it is proving difficult to decouple carbon emissions from GDP growth. Top-down legal and regulatory arrangements envisaged by the Kyoto Protocol are practically redundant given inconsistent political commitment to mitigating global climate change and promoting sustainability. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and European Commission (EC) are promoting the role of financial markets and financial institutions as drivers of behavioural change mobilising capital allocations to decarbonise corporate activity.Peer reviewe

    Using logistic regression in Ecology

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    Regression analysis as a method of studying relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables is wen known. This method fails if the dependent variable is binary i.e. yes-no, present-absent etc. Use of logistic regression is appropriate for such problems. The purpose of this note is to bring to the attention of Indian ecologists this useful statistical tool. The computing aspect is also considered. Two applications in ecology are discussed

    Hepatitis B testing and treatment in HIV patients in The Gambia - compliance with international guidelines and clinical outcomes

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    Background Compliance with WHO guidelines on HBV screening and treatment in HIV-coinfected patients is often challenging in resource limited countries and has been poorly assessed in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Between 2015 and 2016, we assessed physician’s compliance with WHO guidelines on HIV-HBV coinfection in the largest HIV clinic in The Gambia, and the hepatic outcomes in HIV-HBV coinfected patients as compared to randomly selected HIV-monoinfected controls. Results 870 HIV-infected patients regularly seen in this clinic agreed to participate in our study. Only 187 (21.5%, 95% CI 18.8–24.3) had previously been screened for HBsAg, 23 (12.3%, 95% CI 8.0–17.9) were positive of whom none had liver assessment and only 6 (26.1%) had received Tenofovir. Our HBV testing intervention was accepted by all participants and found 94/870 (10.8%, 95% CI 8.8–13.1) positive, 78 of whom underwent full liver assessment along with 40 HBsAg-negative controls. At the time of liver assessment, 61/78 (78.2%) HIV-HBV coinfected patients received ART with 7 (11.5%) on Tenofovir and 54 (88.5%) on Lamivudine alone. HIV-HBV coinfected patients had higher APRI score compared to controls (0.58 vs 0.42, p = 0.002). HBV DNA was detectable in 52/53 (98.1%) coinfected patients with 14/53 (26.4%) having HBV DNA >20,000 IU/L. 10/12 (83.3%) had at least one detectable 3TC-associated HBV resistance, which tended to be associated with increase in liver fibrosis after adjusting for age and sex (p = 0.05). Conclusions Compliance with HBV testing and treatment guidelines is poor in this Gambian HIV programme putting coinfected patients at risk of liver complications. However, the excellent uptake of HBV screening and linkage to care in our study suggests feasible improvements

    A Web of Expectations: Evolving Relationships in Community Participatory Geoweb Projects.

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    This article was first published in ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies in 2015, available online: http://ojs.unbc.ca/index.php/acme/article/view/1235/1030.New forms of participatory online geospatial technology have the potential to support citizen engagement in governance and community development. The mechanisms of this contribution have predominantly been cast in the literature as ‘citizens as sensors’, with individuals acting as a distributed network, feeding academics or government with data. To counter this dominant perspective, we describe our shared experiences with the development of three community-based Geospatial Web 2.0 (Geoweb) projects, where community organizations were engaged as partners, with the general aim to bring about social change in their communities through technology development and implementation. Developing Geoweb tools with community organizations was a process that saw significant evolution of project expectations and relationships. As Geoweb tool development encountered the realities of technological development and implementation in a community context, this served to reduce organizational enthusiasm and support for projects as a whole. We question the power dynamics at play between university researchers and organizations, including project financing, both during development and in the long term. How researchers managed, or perpetuated, many of the popular myths of the Geoweb, namely that it is inexpensive and easy to use (thought not to build, perhaps) impacted the success of each project and the sustainability of relationships between researcher and organization. Ultimately, this research shows the continuing gap between the promise of online geospatial technology, and the realities of its implementation at the community level.Peer-reviewe

    Controlling Light Through Optical Disordered Media : Transmission Matrix Approach

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    We experimentally measure the monochromatic transmission matrix (TM) of an optical multiple scattering medium using a spatial light modulator together with a phase-shifting interferometry measurement method. The TM contains all information needed to shape the scattered output field at will or to detect an image through the medium. We confront theory and experiment for these applications and we study the effect of noise on the reconstruction method. We also extracted from the TM informations about the statistical properties of the medium and the light transport whitin it. In particular, we are able to isolate the contributions of the Memory Effect (ME) and measure its attenuation length

    Reproducibility of measurements of oestrogen-receptor concentration in breast cancer.

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    The reproducibility of measurements of oestrogen-receptor activity has been examined in multiple specimens from a rabbit uterus, a rat mammary tumour and human breast tumours. The relationship between receptor concentration and tumour histology has also been investigated in 11 large primary tumours. In the animal tissues, receptor measurements were relatively reproducible (coefficient of variance: wet wt. basis 16-17%, protein basis 16-21%) but in human breast tumours receptor activity varied considerably (c.v.: wet wt. basis, 22-125%; protein basis, 28-72%). In addition to these variations in receptor activity within tumours, there was a difference between tumours, as demonstrated by an analysis of variance (P less than 0.01). In the 11 primary breast cancers selected for study, the level of receptor activity was related to menopausal status and the tumour content of the specimen. We conclude that the receptor activity detected varies within a tumour and depends upon the tumour content of the biopsy specimen. Predictions based on precise quantitation of receptor concentrations may therefore necessitate replicate tumour sampling and correction for the fraction of non-tumour tissue in each sample

    The Role of Surface Area in Catalytic Gasification of Biomass

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    Gasification of biomass has the potential to provide a carbon-negative source of liquid fuels. The current limited use of gasification is due in part to the high temperatures necessary to achieve high conversion levels. These temperatures can be lowered by the use of catalysts, but the mechanisms by which catalysts affect the reaction rate are not fully understood. Here, the structural component of potassium carbonate’s role in the gasification process was examined. Samples of pinewood sawdust were impregnated with potassium carbonate, then pyrolyzed with N2 in a fixed bed reactor at 750°C (heater thermocouple reading). Half of the char was washed with deionized water twice to remove potassium ions. The char was ground to a 150 micron diameter. Gasification of the samples was performed using CO2 at 750°C and 900°C. Reaction rates over time were compared to the reaction rate of pure pinewood sawdust char. The pure char was then impregnated with K2CO3 and gasified, allowing a comparison to be made between the efficacy of impregnating the sawdust versus the char. Results show that after washing, the impregnated char shows similar or decreased reactivity compared to the pure char. Preliminary results do suggest that impregnation of the sawdust leads to greater reactivity over time than impregnation of the char. The results do not suggest a strong influence of surface area change during impregnation on the reactivity of the char
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