1,041 research outputs found

    Equilibrium Dynamics of Microemulsion and Sponge Phases

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    The dynamic structure factor G(k,ω)G({\bf k},\omega) is studied in a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model for microemulsion and sponge phases in thermal equilibrium by field-theoretic perturbation methods. In bulk contrast, we find that for sufficiently small viscosity η\eta, the structure factor develops a peak at non-zero frequency ω\omega, for fixed wavenumber kk with k0<k<qk_0 < k {< \atop \sim} q. Here, 2π/q2\pi/q is the typical domain size of oil- and water-regions in a microemulsion, and k0ηq2k_0 \sim \eta q^2. This implies that the intermediate scattering function, G(k,t)G({\bf k}, t), {\it oscillates} in time. We give a simple explanation, based on the Navier-Stokes equation, for these temporal oscillations by considering the flow through a tube of radius Rπ/qR \simeq \pi/q, with a radius-dependent tension.Comment: 24 pages, LaTex, 11 Figures on request; J. Phys. II France 4 (1994) to be publishe

    Rheological properties of sheared vesicle and cell suspensions

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    Numerical simulations of vesicle suspensions are performed in two dimensions to study their dynamical and rheological properties. An hybrid method is adopted, which combines a mesoscopic approach for the solvent with a curvature-elasticity model for the membrane. Shear flow is induced by two counter-sliding parallel walls, which generate a linear flow profile. The flow behavior is studied for various vesicle concentrations and viscosity ratios between the internal and the external fluid. Both the intrinsic viscosity and the thickness of depletion layers near the walls are found to increase with increasing viscosity ratio.Comment: To be published in the DynaCaps 2014 Conference Proceedings (Procedia IUTAM

    Dynamics and Rheology of Vesicle Suspensions in Wall-Bounded Shear Flow

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    The dynamics and rheology of suspensions of fluid vesicles or red blood cells is investigated by a combination of molecular dynamics and mesoscale hydrodynamics simulations in two dimensions. The vesicle suspension is confined between two no-slip walls, which are driven externally to generate a shear flow with shear rate γ˙\dot\gamma. The flow behavior is studied as a function of γ˙\dot\gamma, the volume fraction of vesicles, and the viscosity contrast between inside and outside fluids. Results are obtained for the encounter and interactions of two vesicles, the intrinsic viscosity of the suspension, and the cell-free layer near the walls.Comment: In press in EP

    Bending Frustration of Lipid-Water Mesophases Based on Cubic Minimal Surfaces

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    Inverse bicontinuous cubic phases are ubiquitous in lipid-water mixtures and consist of a lipid bilayer forming a cubic minimal surface, thereby dividing space into two cubic networks of water channels. For small hydrocarbon chain lengths, the monolayers can be modeled as parallel surfaces to a minimal midsurface. The bending energy of the cubic phases is determined by the distribution of Gaussian curvature over the minimal midsurfaces which we calculate for seven different structures (G, D, P, I-WP, C(P), S and F-RD). We show that the free-energy densities of the structures G, D and P are considerably lower than those of the other investigated structures due to their narrow distribution of Gaussian curvature. The Bonnet transformation between G, D, and P implies that these phases coexist along a triple line, which also includes an excess water phase. Our model includes thermal membrane undulations. Our qualitative predictions remain unchanged when higher order terms in the curvature energy are included. Calculated phase diagrams agree well with the experimental results for 2:1 lauric acid/dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine and water.Comment: Revtex, 23 pages with 9 postscript figures included, to appear in Langmui

    Analytic vortex solutions in an unusual Mexican hat potential

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    We introduce an unusual Mexican hat potential, a piecewise parabolic one, and we show that its vortex solutions can be found analytically, in contrast to the case of the standard Psi^4 field theory.Comment: 4 pages and 1 figure (missing in this version

    Stability of bicontinuous cubic phases in ternary amphiphilic systems with spontaneous curvature

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    We study the phase behavior of ternary amphiphilic systems in the framework of a curvature model with non-vanishing spontaneous curvature. The amphiphilic monolayers can arrange in different ways to form micellar, hexagonal, lamellar and various bicontinuous cubic phases. For the latter case we consider both single structures (one monolayer) and double structures (two monolayers). Their interfaces are modeled by the triply periodic surfaces of constant mean curvature of the families G, D, P, C(P), I-WP and F-RD. The stability of the different bicontinuous cubic phases can be explained by the way in which their universal geometrical properties conspire with the concentration constraints. For vanishing saddle-splay modulus κˉ\bar \kappa, almost every phase considered has some region of stability in the Gibbs triangle. Although bicontinuous cubic phases are suppressed by sufficiently negative values of the saddle-splay modulus κˉ\bar \kappa, we find that they can exist for considerably lower values than obtained previously. The most stable bicontinuous cubic phases with decreasing κˉ<0\bar \kappa < 0 are the single and double gyroid structures since they combine favorable topological properties with extreme volume fractions.Comment: Revtex, 23 pages with 10 Postscript files included, to appear in J. Chem. Phys. 112 (6) (February 2000

    Conformations, hydrodynamic interactions, and instabilities of sedimenting semiflexible filaments

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    The conformations and dynamics of semiflexible filaments subject to a homogeneous external (gravitational) field, e.g., in a centrifuge, are studied numerically and analytically. The competition between hydrodynamic drag and bending elasticity generates new shapes and dynamical features. We show that the shape of a semiflexible filament undergoes instabilities as the external field increases. We identify two transitions that correspond to the excitation of higher bending modes. In particular, for strong fields the filament stabilizes in a non-planar shape, resulting in a sideways drift or in helical trajectories. For two interacting filaments, we find the same transitions, with the important consequence that the new non-planar shapes have an effective hydrodynamic repulsion, in contrast to the planar shapes which attract themselves even when their osculating planes are rotated with respect to each other. For the case of planar filaments, we show analytically and numerically that the relative velocity is not necessarily due to a different drag of the individual filaments, but to the hydrodynamic interactions induced by their shape asymmetry.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures in Soft Matter (2015

    Swarm behavior of self-propelled rods and swimming flagella

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    Systems of self-propelled particles are known for their tendency to aggregate and to display swarm behavior. We investigate two model systems, self-propelled rods interacting via volume exclusion, and sinusoidally-beating flagella embedded in a fluid with hydrodynamic interactions. In the flagella system, beating frequencies are Gaussian distributed with a non-zero average. These systems are studied by Brownian-dynamics simulations and by mesoscale hydrodynamics simulations, respectively. The clustering behavior is analyzed as the particle density and the environmental or internal noise are varied. By distinguishing three types of cluster-size probability density functions, we obtain a phase diagram of different swarm behaviors. The properties of clusters, such as their configuration, lifetime and average size are analyzed. We find that the swarm behavior of the two systems, characterized by several effective power laws, is very similar. However, a more careful analysis reveals several differences. Clusters of self-propelled rods form due to partially blocked forward motion, and are therefore typically wedge-shaped. At higher rod density and low noise, a giant mobile cluster appears, in which most rods are mostly oriented towards the center. In contrast, flagella become hydrodynamically synchronized and attract each other; their clusters are therefore more elongated. Furthermore, the lifetime of flagella clusters decays more quickly with cluster size than of rod clusters
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