6,392 research outputs found

    A system of three transiting super-Earths in a cool dwarf star

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    We present the detection of three super-Earths transiting the cool star LP415-17, monitored by K2 mission in its 13th campaign. High resolution spectra obtained with HARPS-N/TNG showed that the star is a mid-late K dwarf. Using spectral synthesis models we infer its effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity and subse- quently determined from evolutionary models a stellar radius of 0.58 R Sun. The planets have radii of 1.8, 2.6 and 1.9 R Earth and orbital periods of 6.34, 13.85 and 40.72 days. High resolution images discard any significant contamination by an intervening star in the line of sight. The orbit of the furthest planet has radius of 0.18 AU, close to the inner edge of the habitable zone. The system is suitable to improve our understanding of formation and dynamical evolution of super-Earth systems in the rocky - gaseous threshold, their atmospheres, internal structure, composition and interactions with host stars.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRAS Letter

    Point Source Detection with Fully-Convolutional Networks: Performance in Realistic Simulations

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    Point sources (PS) are one of the main contaminants to the recovery of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) signal at small scales, and their detection is important for the next generation of CMB experiments. We develop a method (PoSeIDoN) based on fully convolutional networks to detect PS in realistic simulations, and we compare its performance against one of the most used PS detection method, the Mexican hat wavelet 2 (MHW2). We produce realistic simulations of PS taking into account contaminating signals as the CMB, the cosmic infrared background, the Galactic thermal emission, the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and the instrumental and PS shot noises. We first produce a set of training simulations at 217 GHz to train the network. Then we apply both PoSeIDoN and the MHW2 to recover the PS in the validating simulations at all 143, 217, and 353 GHz, comparing the results by estimating the reliability, completeness, and flux density accuracy and by computing the receiver operating characteristic curves. In the extra-galactic region with a 30{\deg} galactic cut, the network successfully recovers PS at 90% completeness corresponding to 253, 126, and 250 mJy for 143, 217, and 353 GHz respectively. The MHW2 with a 3σ\sigma flux density detection limit recovers PS up to 181, 102, and 153 mJy at 90% completeness. In all cases PoSeIDoN produces a much lower number of spurious sources with respect to MHW2. The results on spurious sources for both techniques worsen when reducing the galactic cut to 10{\deg}. Our results suggest that using neural networks is a very promising approach for detecting PS, providing overall better results in dealing with spurious sources with respect to usual filtering approaches. Moreover, PoSeIDoN gives competitive results even at nearby frequencies where the network was not trained.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures, accepted Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Epigenetic inactivation of the splicing RNA-binding protein CELF2 in human breast cancer

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    Altres ajuts: This work was co-finaced by the European Development Regional Fund, "A way to achieve Europe" ERDF; the Cellex Foundation; and "la Caixa" Banking Foundation (LCF/PR/PR15/ 11100003).Human tumors show altered patterns of protein isoforms that can be related to the dysregulation of messenger RNA alternative splicing also observed in transformed cells. Although somatic mutations in core spliceosome components and their associated factors have been described in some cases, almost nothing is known about the contribution of distorted epigenetic patterns to aberrant splicing. Herein, we show that the splicing RNA-binding protein CELF2 is targeted by promoter hypermethylation-associated transcriptional silencing in human cancer. Focusing on the context of breast cancer, we also demonstrate that CELF2 restoration has growth-inhibitory effects and that its epigenetic loss induces an aberrant downstream pattern of alternative splicing, affecting key genes in breast cancer biology such as the autophagy factor ULK1 and the apoptotic protein CARD10. Furthermore, the presence of CELF2 hypermethylation in the clinical setting is associated with shorter overall survival of the breast cancer patients carrying this epigenetic lesion

    The Dark Side of the Salad: Salmonella typhimurium Overcomes the Innate Immune Response of Arabidopsis thaliana and Shows an Endopathogenic Lifestyle

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    Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium contaminated vegetables and fruits are considerable sources of human infections. Bacteria present in raw plant-derived nutrients cause salmonellosis, the world wide most spread food poisoning. This facultative endopathogen enters and replicates in host cells and actively suppresses host immune responses. Although Salmonella survives on plants, the underlying bacterial infection mechanisms are only poorly understood. In this report we investigated the possibility to use Arabidopsis thaliana as a genetically tractable host system to study Salmonella-plant interactions. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) marked bacteria, we show here that Salmonella can infect various Arabidopsis tissues and proliferate in intracelullar cellular compartments. Salmonella infection of Arabidopsis cells can occur via intact shoot or root tissues resulting in wilting, chlorosis and eventually death of the infected organs. Arabidopsis reacts to Salmonella by inducing the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades and enhanced expression of pathogenesis related (PR) genes. The induction of defense responses fails in plants that are compromised in ethylene or jasmonic acid signaling or in the MKK3-MPK6 MAPK pathway. These findings demonstrate that Arabidopsis represents a true host system for Salmonella, offering unique possibilities to study the interaction of this human pathogen with plants at the molecular level for developing novel drug targets and addressing current safety issues in human nutrition

    Search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu channel in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

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    A search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H to ZZ to 2l 2nu decay channel, where l = e or mu, in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The data were collected at the LHC, with the CMS detector, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 4.6 inverse femtobarns. No significant excess is observed above the background expectation, and upper limits are set on the Higgs boson production cross section. The presence of the standard model Higgs boson with a mass in the 270-440 GeV range is excluded at 95% confidence level.Comment: Submitted to JHE

    A new multicompartmental reaction-diffusion modeling method links transient membrane attachment of E. coli MinE to E-ring formation

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    Many important cellular processes are regulated by reaction-diffusion (RD) of molecules that takes place both in the cytoplasm and on the membrane. To model and analyze such multicompartmental processes, we developed a lattice-based Monte Carlo method, Spatiocyte that supports RD in volume and surface compartments at single molecule resolution. Stochasticity in RD and the excluded volume effect brought by intracellular molecular crowding, both of which can significantly affect RD and thus, cellular processes, are also supported. We verified the method by comparing simulation results of diffusion, irreversible and reversible reactions with the predicted analytical and best available numerical solutions. Moreover, to directly compare the localization patterns of molecules in fluorescence microscopy images with simulation, we devised a visualization method that mimics the microphotography process by showing the trajectory of simulated molecules averaged according to the camera exposure time. In the rod-shaped bacterium _Escherichia coli_, the division site is suppressed at the cell poles by periodic pole-to-pole oscillations of the Min proteins (MinC, MinD and MinE) arising from carefully orchestrated RD in both cytoplasm and membrane compartments. Using Spatiocyte we could model and reproduce the _in vivo_ MinDE localization dynamics by accounting for the established properties of MinE. Our results suggest that the MinE ring, which is essential in preventing polar septation, is largely composed of MinE that is transiently attached to the membrane independently after recruited by MinD. Overall, Spatiocyte allows simulation and visualization of complex spatial and reaction-diffusion mediated cellular processes in volumes and surfaces. As we showed, it can potentially provide mechanistic insights otherwise difficult to obtain experimentally

    Measurement of the t t-bar production cross section in the dilepton channel in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV