39,661 research outputs found

    Monopoles, strings and dark matter

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    We develop a scenario whereby monopoles in a hidden sector yield a decaying dark matter candidate of interest for the PAMELA and FERMI e¬Īe^\pm excesses. The monopoles are not completely hidden due to a very small kinetic mixing and a hidden photon mass. The latter also causes the monopoles and anti-monopoles to be connected by strings. The resulting long-lived objects eventually decay to hidden photons which tend to escape galactic cores before decaying. The mass scales are those of the hidden photon (‚Čą500\approx 500 MeV), the monopole (‚Čą3\approx 3 TeV) and the mixing scale (close to the Planck scale). A gauge coupling in the hidden sector is the only other parameter. This coupling must be strong and this results in light point-like monopoles and light thin strings.Comment: 21 pages, various improvements and additional reference

    Double Pion Photoproduction in Nuclei

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    The inclusive A(gamma,pi+ pi-)X reaction is studied theoretically. A sizeable enhancement of the cross section is found, in comparison with the scaling of the deuteron cross section (sigma_deuteron * A/2). This enhancement is due to the modifications in the nuclear medium of the gamma N ----> pi pi N amplitude and the pion dispersion relation. The enhancement is found to be bigger than the one already observed in the (pi,pi pi) reaction in nuclei.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures (figures available from authors); TeX, Version 3.141 [PD VMS 3.4/CERN 1.0

    Child education and work choices in the presence of a conditional cash transfer programme in rural Colombia

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    This research is part of a large evaluation effort, undertaken by a consortium formed by IFS, Econometria and SEI, which has considered the effects of Familias en Accion on a variety of outcomes one year after its implementation. In early reports, we focussed on the effects of the programme on school enrolment. In this paper, we both expand those results, by carefully analysing anticipation effects along with other issues, and complement them with an analysis of child labour - both paid and unpaid (including domestic) work. The child labour analysis is made possible due to a rich time use module of the surveys that has not previously been analysed. We find that the programme increased the school participation rates of 14 to 17 year old children quite substantially, by between 5 and 7 percentage points, and had lower, but non-negligible effects on the enrolment of younger children of between 1.4 and 2.4 percentage points. In terms of work, the effects are generally largest for younger children whose participation in domestic work decreased by around 10 to 12 percentage points after the programme but whose participation in income-generating work remained largely unaffected by the programme. We also find evidence of school and work time not being fully substitutable, suggesting that some, but not all, of the increased time at school may be drawn from children's leisure time

    Charged-Lepton-Flavour Violation in Kaon Decays in Supersymmetric Theories

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    We discuss rare kaon decays that violate charged-lepton flavour conservation in supersymmetric theories with and without R parity, in view of possible experiments using an intense proton source as envisaged for a neutrino factory. In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, such decays are generated by box diagrams involving charginos and neutralinos, but the limits from \mu -> e \gamma, \mu-e conversion and \Delta m_K constrain the branching ratios to challengingly small values. However, this is no longer the case in R-violating theories, where such decays may occur at tree level at rates close to the present experimental limits. Within this framework, we obtain bounds on products of LL\bar{E} and LQ\bar{D} operators from the experimental upper limits on K^0 -> \mu^\pm e^\mp and K^{\pm,0} -> \pi^{\pm,0} \mu^\pm e^\mp decays. We also note the possibility of like-sign lepton decays K^\pm -> \pi^\mp \ell^\pm \ell^\pm in the presence of non-zero \tilde{b}_L-\tilde{b}_R mixing. We conclude that rare kaon decays violating charged-lepton flavour conservation could be an interesting signature of R violation.Comment: 25 pages, 6 figures, Prepared for the Kaon Physics Working Group as part of the ECFA/CERN study of Neutrino Factory & Muon Storage Rings At CERN. Referencies added, constraints update

    Control of dissipation in superconducting films by magnetic stray fields

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    Hybrid superconducting/magnetic nanostructures on Si substrates have been built with identical physical dimensions but different magnetic configurations. By constructing arrays based on Co-dots with in-plane, out-of-plane, and vortex state magnetic configurations, the stray fields are systematically tuned. Dissipation in the mixed state of superconductors can be decreased (increased) by several orders of magnitude by decreasing (increasing) the stray magnetic fields. Furthermore, ordering of the stray fields over the entire array helps to suppress dissipation and enhance commensurability effects increasing the number of dissipation minima.Comment: 16 pages including 4 figures; accepted in Applied Physics Letter
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