3,838 research outputs found

    On the Microscopic Foundations of Elasticity

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    The modeling of the elastic properties of disordered or nanoscale solids requires the foundations of the theory of elasticity to be revisited, as one explores scales at which this theory may no longer hold. The only cases for which microscopically based derivations of elasticity are documented are (nearly) uniformly strained lattices. A microscopic approach to elasticity is proposed. As a first step, microscopically exact expressions for the displacement, strain and stress fields are derived. Conditions under which linear elastic constitutive relations hold are studied theoretically and numerically. It turns out that standard continuum elasticity is not self-evident, and applies only above certain spatial scales, which depend on details of the considered system and boundary conditions. Possible relevance to granular materials is briefly discussed.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, LaTeX2e with svjour.cls and svepj.clo, submitted to EPJ E, minor error corrected in v

    Small and Large Scale Granular Statics

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    Recent experimental results on the static or quasistatic response of granular materials have been interpreted to suggest the inapplicability of the traditional engineering approaches, which are based on elasto-plastic models (which are elliptic in nature). Propagating (hyperbolic) or diffusive (parabolic) models have been proposed to replace the `old' models. Since several recent experiments were performed on small systems, one should not really be surprised that (continuum) elasticity, a macroscopic theory, is not directly applicable, and should be replaced by a grain-scale (``microscopic'') description. Such a description concerns the interparticle forces, while a macroscopic description is given in terms of the stress field. These descriptions are related, but not equivalent, and the distinction is important in interpreting the experimental results. There are indications that at least some large scale properties of granular assemblies can be described by elasticity, although not necessarily its isotropic version. The purely repulsive interparticle forces (in non-cohesive materials) may lead to modifications of the contact network upon the application of external forces, which may strongly affect the anisotropy of the system. This effect is expected to be small (in non-isostatic systems) for small applied forces and for pre-stressed systems (in particular for disordered systems). Otherwise, it may be accounted for using a nonlinear, incrementally elastic model, with stress-history dependent elastic moduli. Although many features of the experiments may be reproduced using models of frictionless particles, results demonstrating the importance of accounting for friction are presented.Comment: 10 pages, 9 figures. Accepted for publication in "Granular Matter" (special issue: 4th Int. Conf. on Conveying and Handling of Particulate Solids, Budapest, Hungary, May 2003). v2: Minor revisions to text and figure

    Wind-Driven Gas Networks and Star Formation in Galaxies: Reaction-Advection Hydrodynamic Simulations

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    The effects of wind-driven star formation feedback on the spatio-temporal organization of stars and gas in galaxies is studied using two-dimensional intermediate-representational quasi-hydrodynamical simulations. The model retains only a reduced subset of the physics, including mass and momentum conservation, fully nonlinear fluid advection, inelastic macroscopic interactions, threshold star formation, and momentum forcing by winds from young star clusters on the surrounding gas. Expanding shells of swept-up gas evolve through the action of fluid advection to form a ``turbulent'' network of interacting shell fragments whose overall appearance is a web of filaments (in two dimensions). A new star cluster is formed whenever the column density through a filament exceeds a critical threshold based on the gravitational instability criterion for an expanding shell, which then generates a new expanding shell after some time delay. A filament- finding algorithm is developed to locate the potential sites of new star formation. The major result is the dominance of multiple interactions between advectively-distorted shells in controlling the gas and star morphology, gas velocity distribution and mass spectrum of high mass density peaks, and the global star formation history. The gas morphology observations of gas in the LMC and in local molecular clouds. The frequency distribution of present-to-past average global star formation rate, the distribution of gas velocities in filaments (found to be exponential), and the cloud mass spectra (estimated using a structure tree method), are discussed in detail.Comment: 40 pp, 15 eps figs, mnras style, accepted for publication in MNRAS, abstract abridged, revisions in response to referee's comment

    personalized adjuvant therapies lessons from the past the opening address by the st gallen 2013 award recipient

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    Abstract For several decades, personalized adjuvant therapies have been prescribed based on features that predict response to specific types of treatment. In this summary four specific issues regarding adjuvant therapies are described. Each one developed using information from past experience and is ready to be challenged by future findings from clinical trials and maturation of follow-up data. 1) Accuracy of determination of steroid hormone receptors and of HER2-status was the key feature in International Breast Cancer Study Group (IBCSG) and Breast International Group (BIG) trials. 2) Investigations on ovarian function suppression in IBCSG clinical trials led to the design of two trials (SOFT and TEXT), which are likely to lead to improved adjuvant therapy for premenopausal women with breast cancer. 3) Data from the BIG 1–98 trial of letrozole vs tamoxifen for postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive breast cancer provided information on which patients might obtain increased benefit from aromatase inhibitors and which might achieve similar treatment outcome with tamoxifen alone. 4) Finally, low-dose, frequently administered cytotoxics (metronomic chemotherapy) were tested in advanced disease with surprisingly favorable disease control and very low incidence of side effects. Personalized treatments are likely to improve substantially with increasingly accurate determination of their targets and by using risk- and toxicity-modulated therapies

    Comparison of Adjuvant Therapies Using Quality-Of-Life Considerations

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    The benefit for patients with operable breast cancer treated with adjuvant systemic therapy is small, if reduction of early mortality within the context of randomized control trials is used for treatment comparison. One might consider that the 75%-85% of patients who die despite treatment are overtreated, as are patients who remain alive even without therapy within a given time frame. Larger treatment benefits in terms of avoided or delayed breast cancer relapse have been demonstrated even at early phases of follow-up in the vast majority of adjuvant trials. Exposure of all patients to adjuvant therapy at a time at which no symptoms of disease are present is detrimental in terms of quality of life. Based on our assumption that the quality of life of the patient is typically altered both by subjective toxic effects of adjuvant treatment and by the appearance of relapse, we developed a method of comparing treatment effects in terms of time without symptoms of disease and toxicity of treatment (TWiST). Because the impact of treatment on relapse rates appears earlier than survival effects in all adjuvant therapy trials, and because the value of time without relapse in terms of the quality of life of the patients is as yet poorly defined, we have generalized our method of comparing treatment attitudes to include individual qualitative judgment values. The experience gained from integrating quality-of-life issues into clinical trials for breast cancer might also be applied to other diseases characterized by a chronic course, toxic treatments, and gains in periods of relative or absolute freedom from toxic effects and progressive diseas

    The inelastic hard dimer gas: a non-spherical model for granular matter

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    We study a two-dimensional gas of inelastic smooth hard dimers. Since the collisions between dimers are dissipative, being characterized by a coefficient of restitution α<1\alpha<1, and no external driving force is present, the energy of the system decreases in time and no stationary state is achieved. However, the resulting non equilibrium state of the system displays several interesting properties in close analogy with systems of inelastic hard spheres, whose relaxational dynamics has been thoroughly explored. We generalise to inelastic systems a recently method introduced [G.Ciccotti and G.Kalibaeva, J. Stat. Phys. {\bf 115}, 701 (2004)] to study the dynamics of rigid elastic bodies made up of different spheres hold together by rigid bonds. Each dimer consists of two hard disks of diameter dd, whose centers are separated by a fixed distance aa. By describing the rigid bonds by means of holonomic constraints and deriving the appropriate collision rules between dimers, we reduce the dynamics to a set of equations which can be solved by means of event driven simulation. After deriving the algorithm we study the decay of the total kinetic energy, and of the ratio between the rotational and the translational kinetic energy of inelastic dimers. We show numerically that the celebrated Haff's homogeneous cooling law t−2t^{-2}, describing how the kinetic energy of an inelastic hard sphere system with constant coefficient of restitution decreases in time, holds even in the case of these non spherical particles. We fully characterize this homogeneous decay process in terms of appropriate decay constants and confirm numerically the scaling behavior of the velocity distributions.Comment: 21 pages, 6 figures and 2 tables, submitted to JC
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