744 research outputs found

### On the Microscopic Foundations of Elasticity

The modeling of the elastic properties of disordered or nanoscale solids
requires the foundations of the theory of elasticity to be revisited, as one
explores scales at which this theory may no longer hold. The only cases for
which microscopically based derivations of elasticity are documented are
(nearly) uniformly strained lattices. A microscopic approach to elasticity is
proposed. As a first step, microscopically exact expressions for the
displacement, strain and stress fields are derived. Conditions under which
linear elastic constitutive relations hold are studied theoretically and
numerically. It turns out that standard continuum elasticity is not
self-evident, and applies only above certain spatial scales, which depend on
details of the considered system and boundary conditions. Possible relevance to
granular materials is briefly discussed.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, LaTeX2e with svjour.cls and svepj.clo, submitted
to EPJ E, minor error corrected in v

### The inelastic hard dimer gas: a non-spherical model for granular matter

We study a two-dimensional gas of inelastic smooth hard dimers. Since the
collisions between dimers are dissipative, being characterized by a coefficient
of restitution $\alpha<1$, and no external driving force is present, the energy
of the system decreases in time and no stationary state is achieved. However,
the resulting non equilibrium state of the system displays several interesting
properties in close analogy with systems of inelastic hard spheres, whose
relaxational dynamics has been thoroughly explored. We generalise to inelastic
systems a recently method introduced [G.Ciccotti and G.Kalibaeva, J. Stat.
Phys. {\bf 115}, 701 (2004)] to study the dynamics of rigid elastic bodies made
up of different spheres hold together by rigid bonds. Each dimer consists of
two hard disks of diameter $d$, whose centers are separated by a fixed distance
$a$. By describing the rigid bonds by means of holonomic constraints and
deriving the appropriate collision rules between dimers, we reduce the dynamics
to a set of equations which can be solved by means of event driven simulation.
After deriving the algorithm we study the decay of the total kinetic energy,
and of the ratio between the rotational and the translational kinetic energy of
inelastic dimers. We show numerically that the celebrated Haff's homogeneous
cooling law $t^{-2}$, describing how the kinetic energy of an inelastic hard
sphere system with constant coefficient of restitution decreases in time, holds
even in the case of these non spherical particles. We fully characterize this
homogeneous decay process in terms of appropriate decay constants and confirm
numerically the scaling behavior of the velocity distributions.Comment: 21 pages, 6 figures and 2 tables, submitted to JC

### Velocity Statistics in the Two-Dimensional Granular Turbulence

We studied the macroscopic statistical properties on the freely evolving
quasi-elastic hard disk (granular) system by performing a large-scale (up to a
few million particles) event-driven molecular dynamics systematically and found
that remarkably analogous to an enstrophy cascade process in the decaying
two-dimensional fluid turbulence. There are four typical stages in the freely
evolving inelastic hard disk system, which are homogeneous, shearing (vortex),
clustering and final state. In the shearing stage, the self-organized
macroscopic coherent vortices become dominant. In the clustering stage, the
energy spectra are close to the expectation of Kraichnan-Batchelor theory and
the squared two-particle separation strictly obeys Richardson law.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, to be published in PR

### Impact of high-energy tails on granular gas properties

The velocity distribution function of granular gases in the homogeneous
cooling state as well as some heated granular gases decays for large velocities
as $f\propto\exp(- {\rm const.} v)$. That is, its high-energy tail is
overpopulated as compared with the Maxwell distribution. At the present time,
there is no theory to describe the influence of the tail on the kinetic
characteristics of granular gases. We develop an approach to quantify the
overpopulated tail and analyze its impact on granular gas properties, in
particular on the cooling coefficient. We observe and explain anomalously slow
relaxation of the velocity distribution function to its steady state.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

### Inherent Rheology of a Granular Fluid in Uniform Shear Flow

In contrast to normal fluids, a granular fluid under shear supports a steady
state with uniform temperature and density since the collisional cooling can
compensate locally for viscous heating. It is shown that the hydrodynamic
description of this steady state is inherently non-Newtonian. As a consequence,
the Newtonian shear viscosity cannot be determined from experiments or
simulation of uniform shear flow. For a given degree of inelasticity, the
complete nonlinear dependence of the shear viscosity on the shear rate requires
the analysis of the unsteady hydrodynamic behavior. The relationship to the
Chapman-Enskog method to derive hydrodynamics is clarified using an approximate
Grad's solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equationComment: 10 pages, 4 figures; substantially enlarged version; to be published
in PR

### Spatial Correlations in Compressible Granular Flows

For a freely evolving granular fluid, the buildup of spatial correlations in
density and flow field is described using fluctuating hydrodynamics. The theory
for incompressible flows is extended to the general, compressible case,
including longitudinal velocity and density fluctuations, and yields
qualitatively different results for long range correlations. The structure
factor of density fluctuations shows a maximum at finite wavenumber, shifting
in time to smaller wavenumbers and corresponding to a growing correlation
length. It agrees well with two-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations.Comment: 12 pages, Latex, 3 figure

### Force Chains, Microelasticity and Macroelasticity

It has been claimed that quasistatic granular materials, as well as nanoscale
materials, exhibit departures from elasticity even at small loadings. It is
demonstrated, using 2D and 3D models with interparticle harmonic interactions,
that such departures are expected at small scales [below O(100) particle
diameters], at which continuum elasticity is invalid, and vanish at large
scales. The models exhibit force chains on small scales, and force and stress
distributions which agree with experimental findings. Effects of anisotropy,
disorder and boundary conditions are discussed as well.Comment: 4 pages, 11 figures, RevTeX 4, revised and resubmitted to Phys. Rev.
Let

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