62,600 research outputs found

    Restore the Floor: It’s Time to Raise the Minimum Wage

    Get PDF
    [Excerpt] In 1994 there were 4.1 million hourly workers who were paid the minimum wage or less which represents 6.2 percent of all workers paid on an hourly basis. These estimates are conservative as this total does not include all the salaried workers with trumped up titles such as “assistant manager” or “management trainee” who, because of long hours, are often paid at the minimum wage rate or less. Individuals who are employed at the minimum wage can be characterized by their strong work ethic as they work even though their low wage jobs do not provide enough earnings or income for a decent standard of living. Adopting a higher minimum wage is the most straight forward “program” to help the “working poor.” An increase in the minimum wage is good policy, is beneficial to the economy and it is supported by the vast majority of Americans

    Asylum: Immigration Clinic Aids Ex-Gang Member Seeking Hope--Caught in the Crossfire

    Get PDF

    Conversations outside the comfort zone: identity formation in SME manager action learning

    Get PDF
    In this paper we consider the construction of narrative identity and particularly how managers of small businesses may construct new narrative identities within the activity of the action learning situation. We build on recent work to suggest that the ‘world’ of managers can be explored through a consideration of Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory of learning and what he referred to as the zone of proximal development. We argue that for small business managers, a consideration of identity is fundamental to personal and business development and that this encompasses a consideration of present concerns and interests, existing capacities and understandings and skills to find solutions to problems faced. We base our propositions on the evidence that many small business managers feel the need to focus on operational activities, which prevents consideration of the long-term and of their personal development. Action learning should not be viewed merely as an opportunity to pose and find solutions to problems; more importantly it offers the possibility of considering which aspects of a learner's self-image are potentially blocking progress and change, to engage in identity work and to surface and take action upon those elements of one's current identity that prevent thoughtful action. The impact of the powerful image of the entrepreneur is also examined in two case studies of owner-manager identity construction in the action learning situation. We suggest that a re-theorization of action learning provides a basis for emphasising the identity-forming potential of sets and we also propose that action learning practitioners (set advisors) use Vygotsky's notions of socio-cultural practice and the zone of proximal development to encourage the re-narration of identities and particularly the development of a strong sense of self in the action learning situation

    Automotive gas turbine fuel control

    Get PDF
    A fuel control system is reported for automotive-type gas turbines and particulary advanced gas turbines utilizing variable geometry components to improve mileage and reduce pollution emission. The fuel control system compensates for fuel density variations, inlet temperature variations, turbine vane actuation, acceleration, and turbine braking. These parameters are utilized to control various orifices, spool valves and pistons

    The Three Commandments of Amending the Federal Rules of Evidence

    Get PDF
    The Rules have been amended many times in the forty years since they were enacted. Unlike the original drafting process, which necessarily involved consideration of the Rules as a whole, each round of amendments was limited to a specific Rule or set of Rules. This particularized focus is not myopic, but unavoidable; the Rules are numerous and complex, and the time of the Advisory Committee and Congress is limited. But after more than forty years, a broader perspective is possible. The purpose of this Article is to provide a small bit of that perspective, which this Article distills into three “commandments” for amending the Rules. After a brief history of the residual exception and a description of the proposed amendment, this Article considers the extent to which that proposal complies with these commandments

    Theorising and practitioners in HRD: the role of abductive reasoning

    Get PDF
    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to argue that abductive reasoning is a typical but usually unrecognised process used by HRD scholars and practitioners alike. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper that explores recent criticism of traditional views of theory-building, based on the privileging of scientific theorising, which has led to a relevance gap between scholars and practitioners. The work of Charles Sanders Peirce and the varieties of an abductive reasoning process are considered. Findings – Abductive reasoning, which precedes induction and deduction, provide a potential connection with HRD practitioners who face difficult problems. Two types of abductive reasoning are explored – existential and analogic. Both offer possibilities for theorising with HRD practitioners. A range of methods for allowing abduction to become more evident with practitioners are presented. The authors consider how abduction can be used in engaged and participative research strategies. Research limitations/implications – While this is a conceptual paper, it does suggest implications for engagement and participation in theorising with HRD practitioners. Practical implications – Abductive reasoning adds to the repertoire of HRD scholars and practitioners. Originality/value – The paper elucidates the value of abductive reasoning and points to how it can become an integral element of theory building in HRD

    Geographic Variation in Medicare Per Capita Spending: Should Policy-Makers Be Concerned?

    Get PDF
    Reviews research on geographic variations in Medicare spending per capita; contributing factors, including differences in population mix, prices, and type and amount of care; and whether higher spending ensures better care. Discusses policy implications

    Trustworthiness and Motivations

    Get PDF
    Trust can be thought of as a three place relation: A trusts B to do X. Trustworthiness has two components: competence (does the trustee have the relevant skills, knowledge and abilities to do X?) and willingness (is the trustee intending or aiming to do X?). This chapter is about the willingness component, and the different motivations that a trustee may have for fulfilling trust. The standard assumption in economics is that agents are self-regarding, maximizing their own consumption of goods and services. This is too restrictive. In particular, people may be concerned with the outcomes of others, and they may be concerned to follow ethical principles. I distinguish weak trustworthiness, which places no restrictions on B’s motivation for doing X, from strong trustworthiness, where the behaviour must have a particular non-selfish motivation, in finance the fiduciary commitment to promote the interests of the truster. I discuss why strong trustworthiness may be more efficient and also normatively preferable to weak. In finance, there is asymmetric information between buyer and seller, which creates a need for trustworthy assessment of products. It also creates an ambiguity about whether the relationship is one of buyer and seller, governed by caveat emptor, or a fiduciary relationship of advisor and client. This means that there are two possible reasons why trust may be breached: because the trustee didn’t realise that the truster framed the relationship as a fiduciary one, or because the trustee did realise but actively sought to take advantage of the trust. Correspondingly, there are two possible types of agent: normal people who are not always self-regarding and who are trust responsive (if they believe that they are being trusted then they are likely to fulfill that trust), and knaves, after Hume’s character who is always motivated by his own private interest. We can increase the trustworthiness of normal people by getting them to re-frame the situation as one of trust, so they will be strongly trustworthy (i.e. change of institutional culture), and by providing non-monetary incentives (the correct choice of incentive will depend on exactly what their non-selfish motivation is). Knaves need sanctions, which can make them weakly trustworthy. However, this is a delicate balance because sanctions can crowd out normative frames. We can also increase the trustworthiness of financiers by making finance less attractive to knaves; changing the mix of types in finance could help support the necessary cultural change
    corecore