266 research outputs found

    Differential associations of angiographic extent and severity of coronary artery disease with asymmetric dimethylarginine but not insulin resistance in non-diabetic men with stable angina: a cross-sectional study

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    BACKGROUND: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor, and insulin resistance (IR) have been implicated in atherogenesis. Our aim was to estimate relations between ADMA, the magnitude of IR and angiographic indices of extent and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in non-diabetic men with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We studied 151 non-diabetic men (mean age 57 ± 11 years) with stable angina, obstructive CAD (at least 1 luminal diameter stenosis of ≥70% in major coronary segments) and without heart failure, and 34 age-matched controls free of ≥50% coronary narrowings. The following CAD indices were computed: the number of major epicardial vessels with ≥70% stenosis, Sullivan extent score representing a proportion of the visible coronary tree with vessel wall irregularities, and Gensini score which reflects both CAD severity and extent, yet assigning a heavier weight to proximal segments and to the more severe narrowings by a non-linear point system. An estimate of IR was derived by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) from fasting insulin and glucose. RESULTS: Among the CAD patients, the proportions of subjects with 1-vessel, 2- vessel and 3-vessel CAD were 26%, 25% and 49%, respectively. ADMA levels were higher in patients with obstructive CAD compared to the controls (0.51 ± 0.10 vs. 0.46 ± 0.09 μmol/L [SD], P = 0.01), whereas HOMA-IR was similar (median, 3.2 [interquartile range: 2.4–4.9] vs. 2.9 [2.3–4.7], P = 0.2). Within the CAD group, ADMA increased across ascending quartiles of Sullivan score (Spearman’s rho = 0.23, P = 0.004), but not with Gensini score (rho = 0.12, P = 0.15) or the number of vessels involved (rho = 0.08, P = 0.3). ADMA correlated to log-transformed Sullivan score (Pearson's r = 0.21, P = 0.008), which was only slightly attenuated upon multivariate adjustment (β = 0.19 ± 0.08 [SEM], P = 0.015). HOMA-IR did not differ according to any measure of angiographic CAD (P ≥ 0.2). ADMA and log (HOMA-IR) were mutually unrelated (r = 0.07, P = 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: ADMA is associated with diffuse but not focal coronary atherosclerosis in non-diabetic men with stable CAD irrespectively of the degree of IR. The independent relationship between ADMA and coronary atherosclerotic burden may contribute to the well-recognized prognostic effect of ADMA in CAD

    Managing impulsivity in obesity with problem solving

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    peer reviewedAmong factors involved in binge eating episodes of our obese patients, impulsivity plays an important role. The model of Whiteside and Lynam describes four facets of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking). This multifaceted construct sheds light on our patients' impulsive behaviours towards food. To help our patients manage their impulsivity, problem solving technique is described in details. It can be effective in helping patients to cope their binge eating episodes since problem solving can initiate action and change habits

    Improvement in coronary circulatory function in morbidly obese individuals after gastric bypass-induced weight loss: relation to alterations in endocannabinoids and adipocytokines

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    Aims To investigate the effect of surgical gastric bypass-induced weight loss and related alterations in endocannabinoids (ECs) and adipocytokine plasma levels on coronary circulatory dysfunction in morbidly obese (MOB) individuals. Methods and results Myocardial blood flow (MBF) responses to cold pressor test (CPT) from rest (ΔMBF) and during pharmacologically induced hyperaemia were measured with 13N-ammonia PET/CT in 18 MOB individuals with a body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m2 at baseline and after a median follow-up period of 22 months. Gastric bypass intervention decreased BMI from a median of 44.8 (inter-quartile range: 43.3, 48.2) to 30.8 (27.3, 34.7) kg/m2 (P < 0.0001). This decrease in BMI was accompanied by a marked improvement in endothelium-related ΔMBF to CPT and hyperaemic MBFs, respectively [0.34 (0.18, 0.41) from 0.03 (−0.08, 0.15) mL/g/min, P = 0.002; and 2.51 (2.17, 2.64) from 1.53 (1.39, 2.18) mL/g/min, P < 0.001]. There was an inverse correlation between decreases in plasma concentrations of the EC anandamide and improvement in ΔMBF to CPT (r = −0.59, P = 0.009), while increases in adiponectin plasma levels correlated positively with hyperaemic MBFs (r = 0.60, P = 0.050). Conversely, decreases in leptin plasma concentrations were not observed to correlate with the improvement in coronary circulatory function (r = 0.22, P = 0.400, and r = −0.31, P = 0.250). Conclusions Gastric bypass-related reduction of BMI in MOB individuals beneficially affects coronary circulatory dysfunction. The dysbalance between ECs and adipocytokines appears to be an important determinant of coronary circulatory function in obesit

    Numerical simulations of wave breaking

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    This paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of wave breaking. It presents the results of a numerical workshop that was held during the conference LOMA04. The objective is to compare several mathematical models (compressible or incompressible) and associated numerical methods to compute the flow field during a wave breaking over a reef. The methods will also be compared with experiments

    Antitumour effects of single or combined monoclonal antibodies directed against membrane antigens expressed by human B cells leukaemia

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    Background: The increasing availability of different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) opens the way to more specific biologic therapy of cancer patients. However, despite the significant success of therapy in breast and ovarian carcinomas with anti-HER2 mAbs as well as in non-Hodkin B cell lymphomas with anti-CD20 mAbs, certain B cell malignancies such as B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) respond poorly to anti-CD20 mAb, due to the low surface expression of this molecule. Thus, new mAbs adapted to each types of tumour will help to develop personalised mAb treatment. To this aim, we analyse the biological and therapeutic properties of three mAbs directed against the CD5, CD71 or HLA-DR molecules highly expressed on B-CLL cells. Results: The three mAbs, after purification and radiolabelling demonstrated high and specific binding capacity to various human leukaemia target cells. Further in vitro analysis showed that mAb anti-CD5 induced neither growth inhibition nor apoptosis, mAb anti-CD71 induced proliferation inhibition with no early sign of cell death and mAb anti-HLA-DR induced specific cell aggregation, but without evidence of apoptosis. All three mAbs induced various degrees of ADCC by NK cells, as well as phagocytosis by macrophages. Only the anti-HLA-DR mAb induced complement mediated lysis. Coincubation of different pairs of mAbs did not significantly modify the in vitro results. In contrast with these discrete and heterogeneous in vitro effects, in vivo the three mAbs demonstrated marked anti-tumour efficacy and prolongation of mice survival in two models of SCID mice, grafted either intraperitoneally or intravenously with the CD5 transfected JOK1-5.3 cells. This cell line was derived from a human hairy cell leukaemia, a type of malignancy known to have very similar biological properties as the B-CLL, whose cells constitutively express CD5. Interestingly, the combined injection of anti-CD5 with anti-HLA-DR or with anti-CD71 led to longer mouse survival, as compared to single mAb injection, up to complete inhibition of tumour growth in 100% mice treated with both anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD5. Conclusions: Altogether these data suggest that the combined use of two mAbs, such as anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD5, may significantly enhance their therapeutic potential

    Effectiveness of Therapeutic Patient Education Interventions in Obesity and Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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    Diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity account for the highest burden of non-communicable diseases. There is increasing evidence showing therapeutic patient education (TPE) as a clinically and cost-effective solution to improve biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among people with DM and obesity. The present systematic review and meta-analysis present a critical synthesis of the development of TPE interventions for DM and obesity and the efficacy of these interventions across a range of biomedical, psychosocial and psychological outcomes. A total of 54 of these RCTs were identified among patients with obesity and diabetes and were thus qualitatively synthesized. Out of these, 47 were included in the quantitative synthesis. There was substantial heterogeneity in the reporting of these outcomes (I2 = 88.35%, Q = 317.64), with a significant improvement noted in serum HbA1c levels (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.272, 95% CI: 0.118 to 0.525, n = 7360) and body weight (SMD = 0.526, 95% CI: 0.205 to 0.846, n = 1082) in the intervention group. The effect sizes were comparable across interventions delivered by different modes and delivery agents. These interventions can be delivered by allied health staff, doctors or electronically as self-help programs, with similar effectiveness (p &lt; 0.001). These interventions should be implemented in healthcare and community settings to improve the health outcomes in patients suffering from obesity and DM

    Elevated endocannabinoid plasma levels are associated with coronary circulatory dysfunction in obesity

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    Aims Aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association between endocannabinoid (EC) plasma levels, such as anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and coronary circulatory function in obesity. Methods and results Myocardial blood flow (MBF) responses to cold pressor test (CPT) and during pharmacological vasodilation with dipyridamole were measured with 13N-ammonia PET/CT. Study participants (n = 77) were divided into three groups based on their body mass index (BMI, kg/m2): control group 20≤ BMI <25 (n = 21); overweight group, 25≤ BMI <30 (n = 26); and obese group, BMI ≥30 (n = 30). Anandamide plasma levels, but not 2-AG plasma levels, were significantly elevated in obesity as compared with controls, respectively [0.68 (0.53, 0.78) vs. 0.56 (0.47, 0.66) ng/mL, P = 0.020, and 2.2 (1.21, 4.59) vs. 2.0 (0.80, 5.90) ng/mL, P = 0.806)]. The endothelium-related change in MBF during CPT from rest (ΔMBF) progressively declined in overweight and obese when compared with control group [0.21 (0.10, 0.27) and 0.09 (−0.01, 0.15) vs. 0.26 (0.23, 0.39) mL/g/min; P = 0.010 and P = 0.0001, respectively). Compared with controls, hyperaemic MBFs were significantly lower in overweight and obese individuals [2.39 (1.97, 2.62) vs. 1.98 (1.69, 2.26) and 2.10 (1.76, 2.36); P = 0.007 and P = 0.042, respectively)]. In obese individuals, AEA and 2-AG plasma levels were inversely correlated with ΔMBF to CPT (r = −0.37, P = 0.046 and r = −0.48, P = 0.008) and hyperaemic MBFs (r = −0.38, P = 0.052 and r = −0.45, P = 0.017), respectively. Conclusions Increased EC plasma levels of AEA and 2-AG are associated with coronary circulatory dysfunction in obese individuals. This observation might suggest increases in EC plasma levels as a novel endogenous cardiovascular risk factor in obesity, but needing further investigation
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