9 research outputs found

    An Attribution Theory Lens on Plagiarism: Examining the Beliefs of Preservice Teachers

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    Academic misconduct is a prominent issue at postsecondary institutions. This issue includes the act of plagiarism, which has received considerable attention on campuses. There is a growing body of research examining why students engage in plagiarism, and what they know about plagiarism, but little of this research is guided by a theoretical framework. Although all students may be tempted to plagiarize, students in teacher education programs represent a unique population because they are concerned with developing their own academic performance alongside the skills necessary to manage situations of academic misconduct as future teachers. Therefore, our first aim was to examine preservice teachers’ beliefs about plagiarism. Then, following the principles of Attribution Theory, our second aim was to investigate how beliefs of controllability related to acts of plagiarism impacted participants views on responsibility, emotions, help giving, and reporting. We used a within-person repeated measures design with three levels of controllability manipulated through hypothetical scenarios of plagiarism to collect data from 201 preservice teachers. Overall, preservice teachers had strong beliefs about plagiarism. Moreover, when scenarios included students who engaged in plagiarism that was controllable, participants were more likely to view the student as responsible, feel anger towards them, support punishment, and recommend reporting the student, than when the act of plagiarism was not seen as controllable. We provide recommendations for instructors and administrators for supporting students and highlight limitations and directions for future research

    Practicing Teachers’ Attributions for the Behaviour of Students With Learning Disabilities and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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    More students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD) are being taught within the regular education classroom than ever before even though children with these disorders often require additional educational supports. Therefore, it is critical that teachers understand the challenges experienced by these students, as well as feel efficacious when it comes to teaching and supporting them. Attribution theory is a widely used theoretical framework by which to explain teachers’ cognitions. We surveyed 151 practicing teachers and asked them to respond to items related to attributions for students’ behaviour and their teaching self-efficacy. First, we examined teachers’ perceptions of the primary cause of the difficulties experienced by students qualitatively. We open-coded responses and three major themes emerged: biology/genetics, the environment, and skill deficits. These themes differed somewhat depending on whether the student had ADHD or LD. Second, we examined the relationship between teachers’ attributions for student behaviours and their sense of teaching self-efficacy quantitatively. For students with ADHD, controllable attributions predicted teachers’ self-efficacy (β = .30, p = .005). For students with LD, controllable and internal attributions predicted teacher self-efficacy (β = .34, p = .001, β = .24, p = .009, respectively). Third, we examined the results of both analyses simultaneously to determine areas of convergence and divergence with respect to attribution theory. The results have implications for both teachers and students (e.g., attributional interventions designed to foster a sense of self-efficacy), as well as provide directions for future research and teacher training. Keywords: ADHD, LD, practicing teachers, attributions, self-efficacy, mixed-methods Le nombre d’élèves atteints du trouble du déficit de l'attention avec ou sans hyperactivité (TDAH) ou des troubles d’apprentissage (TA) sont intégrés plus que jamais aux classes ordinaires, même si les enfants affectés par ce type de difficultés ont souvent besoin d’un soutien éducationnel supplémentaire. Il est donc critique que les enseignants comprennent les défis que vivent ces élèves et que les enseignants se sentent efficaces dans l’enseignement et l’appui qu’ils leur apportent. La théorie attributive est un cadre théorique dont l’emploi est répandu pour expliquer les cognitions des enseignants. Au cours d’une enquête auprès de 151 enseignants en exercice, nous les avons interrogés au sujet des attributions relatives au comportement des élèves et de leur sentiment d’efficacité personnelle en enseignement. Nous avons d’abord étudié, qualitativement, les perceptions des enseignants quant à la première cause des difficultés que vivent les élèves. Trois thèmes majeurs se sont dégagés des réponses aux questions ouvertes : la biologie/la génétique, l’environnement et des lacunes sur le plan des habiletés. Ces thèmes variaient quelque peu selon que l’élève était atteint du TDAH ou des TA. Deuxièmement, nous avons étudié, quantitativement, le rapport entre les attributions des enseignants relatives au comportement des élèves et leur sentiment d’efficacité personnelle en enseignement. Par rapport aux élèves atteints du TDAH, les attributions contrôlables étaient prédictives du sentiment d’efficacité personnelle chez les enseignants (β = .30, p = .005). Relativement aux élèves atteints des TA, les attributions contrôlables et internes étaient prédictives du sentiment d’efficacité personnelle chez les enseignants (β = .34, p = .001, β = .24, p = .009, respectivement). En troisième lieu, nous avons étudié les résultats des deux analyses simultanément afin de déterminer les points de convergence et de divergence par rapport à la théorie attributive. Les résultats ont des retombées tant pour les enseignants que les élèves (par ex. des interventions attributionnelles conçues pour favoriser un sentiment d’efficacité personnelle) et ils proposent de nouvelles orientations en matière de recherche et formation des enseignants. Mots clés : TDAH, TA, enseignants en exercice, attributions, efficacité personnelle, méthodes mixte

    Agreeing is Not the Same as Accepting: Exploring Pre-Service Teachers’ Growth Mindsets

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    The popularity of mindset theory has resulted in a surge of mindset interventions in schools. However, with increased popularity, there is the potential for misunderstandings and hesitations about what a growth mindset fully entails. Therefore, we sought to disentangle which components of growth mindset messages pre-service teachers find hard to accept alongside their level of agreement with growth mindset questionnaire items. We used a descriptive design with both quantitative and qualitative data to explore 182 pre-service teachers’ responses to growth mindset messages. The results of this study suggest that pre-service teachers hold a growth mindset. However, despite strong quantitative endorsements, in the qualitative analyses we determined three ways in which participants found a growth mindset hard to accept: (1) the notion of mindset theory itself, (2) the level of growth, (3) and the necessary actions behind having a growth mindset. The findings of this study suggest we need to pay close attention to false growth mindsets in theory and practice

    Combinations of Personal Responsibility: Differences on Pre-service and Practicing Teachers’ Efficacy, Engagement, Classroom Goal Structures and Wellbeing

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    Pre-service and practicing teachers feel responsible for a range of educational activities. Four domains of personal responsibility emerging in the literature are: student achievement, student motivation, relationships with students, and responsibility for ones own teaching. To date, most research has used variable-centered approaches to examining responsibilities even though the domains appear related. In two separate samples we used cluster analysis to explore how pre-service (n = 130) and practicing (n = 105) teachers combined personal responsibilities and their impact on three professional cognitions and their wellbeing. Both groups had low and high responsibility clusters but the third cluster differed: Pre-service teachers combined responsibilities for relationships and their own teaching in a cluster we refer to as teacher-based responsibility; whereas, practicing teachers combined achievement and motivation in a cluster we refer to as student-outcome focused responsibility. These combinations affected outcomes for pre-service but not practicing teachers. Pre-service teachers in the low responsibility cluster reported less engagement, less mastery approaches to instruction, and more performance goal structures than the other two clusters

    An exploratory mixed method study on student-athletes' motivation for assessment in sport and academic settings

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    AbstractStudent-athletes in university undergo assessments in both sport and academic domains, which can encompass varying conceptions and outcomes related to assessment. However, questions on whether this ‘doubling up’ of assessments result in similar or different assessment-related outcomes, or whether assessments are conceived the same way across sport and academic contexts, are an omission in achievement research. This study sought to explore the experiences of Canadian student-athletes’ conceptions of assessment, perceptions of control, and emotions in sport and academia through an explanatory mixed-methods design. The study comprised 77 Canadian USports university athletes (Mage = 20.21) for the quantitative data, and 6 athletes partaking in focus group/individual interviews for the qualitative data. The quantitative findings revealed student-athletes reported higher conceptions of assessment as fun and irrelevant in sport compared to university, and greater emotions such as anger, helplessness, and relief in university compared to sport (p < .05). In the qualitative strand, three themes were identified for conceptions of assessment: function, discrete outcomes, broad consequences; three themes for perceptions of control: effort, preparation, and motivation; and three themes for emotions: anticipatory, retrospective, and relational. Mixed insights revealed the importance of assessment consequences, the natural motivation and effort for sport assessment, and the differences in positive and negative emotions between sport and academic domains. Recommendations are discussed for both postsecondary coaches and instructors to help improve sport and academic assessment in ways tailored to the student-athlete experience of assessment

    An exploratory mixed method study on student-athletes' motivation for assessment in sport and academic settings

    No full text
    Student-athletes in university undergo assessments in both sport and academic domains, which can encompass varying conceptions and outcomes related to assessment. However, questions on whether this ‘doubling up’ of assessments result in similar or different assessment-related outcomes, or whether assessments are conceived the same way across sport and academic contexts, are an omission in achievement research. This study sought to explore the experiences of Canadian student-athletes’ conceptions of assessment, perceptions of control, and emotions in sport and academia through an explanatory mixed-methods design. The study comprised 77 Canadian USports university athletes (Mage = 20.21) for the quantitative data, and 6 athletes partaking in focus group/individual interviews for the qualitative data. The quantitative findings revealed student-athletes reported higher conceptions of assessment as fun and irrelevant in sport compared to university, and greater emotions such as anger, helplessness, and relief in university compared to sport (p < .05). In the qualitative strand, three themes were identified for conceptions of assessment: function, discrete outcomes, broad consequences; three themes for perceptions of control: effort, preparation, and motivation; and three themes for emotions: anticipatory, retrospective, and relational. Mixed insights revealed the importance of assessment consequences, the natural motivation and effort for sport assessment, and the differences in positive and negative emotions between sport and academic domains. Recommendations are discussed for both postsecondary coaches and instructors to help improve sport and academic assessment in ways tailored to the student-athlete experience of assessment.</p
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