4 research outputs found

    Reading-specific flexibility moderates the relation between reading strategy use and reading comprehension during the elementary years

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    The goal was to test whether cognitive flexibility moderates the relation between reading strategy use and reading comprehension during the elementary years. Seventy-five second through fifth grade students completed a think aloud task and a metacognitive questionnaire to measure reading strategies, two card-sorting tasks to measure general and reading-specific cognitive flexibility, and one standardized measure of reading comprehension, as well as measures of oral reading fluency and vocabulary. As expected, oral reading fluency and vocabulary predicted reading comprehension, as did reading-specific flexibility. Importantly, reading-specific flexibility had a significant moderating effect, over and above the other effects. Specifically, weak reading-specific flexibility skills were associated with a negative relation between reading strategy use during think aloud and reading comprehension, suggesting that children with weak flexibility skills are less adept at using reading strategies effectively

    Executive functioning predicts reading, mathematics, and theory of mind during the elementary years.

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    The goal of this study was to specify how executive functioning components predict reading, mathematics, and theory of mind performance during the elementary years. Ninety-three 7- to 10-year-old children completed measures of working memory, inhibition, flexibility, reading, mathematics, and theory of mind. Path analysis revealed that all three executive functioning components (working memory, inhibition, and flexibility) mediated age differences in reading comprehension, whereas age predicted mathematics and theory of mind directly. In addition, reading mediated the influence of executive functioning components on mathematics and theory of mind, except that flexibility also predicted mathematics directly. These findings provide important details about the development of executive functioning, reading, mathematics, and theory of mind during the elementary years

    Cognitive Flexibility as a Moderator of the Relation between Reading Strategy Use and Reading Comprehension

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    Reading is an important skill that contributes to both academic success and successful daily functioning. The goal of reading comprehension is to create meaning from the printed words, and the current study explored factors influencing reading comprehension, specifically reading strategies and cognitive flexibility. Reading strategies include practices such as setting goals, activating prior knowledge, and monitoring comprehension, which have been found to enhance reading performance (Gaskins, Satlow, & Pressley, 2007; Kolic-Vehovic & Bajsanski, 2006; Schellings, Aarnoutse, & van Leeuwe, 2006). Cognitive flexibility is one component of executive functioning that may impact the relation between reading strategy use and reading comprehension. Cognitive flexibility reflects an individual\u27s skill for adapting in light of new or changing information and switching fluently between activities. Both general and reading-specific flexibility were explored for the purposes of this study. The primary purpose of this dissertation was to test the potential moderating role of cognitive flexibility on the relation between reading strategies and reading comprehension. Results indicated a significant moderating role of reading-specific flexibility. No significant moderation effects were observed for general flexibility. Additionally, correlations between self-reported scores from a metacognitive questionnaire and observational scores from a think aloud procedure were examined. Two strategies (questioning and activating prior knowledge) were significantly correlated across measures. Three strategies (setting goals, monitoring comprehension, and making predictions) were not correlated. Overall, these findings suggest that reading-specific flexibility is important for reading comprehension performance. In addition, the findings contribute to the literature base regarding measurement of reading strategy use. As such, the results have important implications for reading practice and future research