229 research outputs found

    The Persistence of Poverty in Rural China: Applying an Ordered Probit and a Hazard Approach

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    The present study investigates the analysis of poverty persistence of Chinese farm households in the well-off Zhejiang province in the southeast. We firstly apply an ordered probit model examining household, farm, and regional characteristics affecting the probability that households are chronically poor. In addition, we apply a hazard approach to identify the risk of falling into and climbing out of poverty. Results indicate that there are increasing chances to climb out of poverty over time, and that the risk of falling into poverty seems to decrease after the household spent some time outside poverty.Poverty persistence, China, rural population, hazard analysis, dynamics, Food Security and Poverty, C23, D1, I32, R29,

    The Dynamics of Chinese Rural Households' Participation in Labor Markets

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    The work focuses on the frequency of each possible transition between labor market participation regimes of rural Chinese households. A continuous hazard approach is applied to empirically evaluate factors, as household, farm, and regional characteristics affecting the frequency of transition between labor market participation states. Results suggest that there are frequent changes of labor market participations regimes among the househo lds. Given the change in external conditions and other factor end owments this might indicate that households quickly response in allocating labor in order to equilibrate the resources. Further, we find that there are good chances climbing out of autarky; however the probability to fall in autarky was also remarkable over time.Labor market participation, dynamic analysis, China, hazard model, rural households, Labor and Human Capital, C41, J60, Q12,

    Market power of German food and beverage industries on international markets

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    In this paper the existence and magnitude of market power for German beer, cocoa powder, chocolate, and sugar confectionary exporters are tested. Two theoretical approaches are employed, the 'pricing of market' (PTM) and the 'residual demand elasticity' (RDE) approach. Even though all markets show a significant violation of the 'law of one price' estimations for monthly data from 1991 to 1998 reveal that markets are in most cases perfectly competitive. However, while in some cases significant market power is indicated for the PTM approach, the RDE results do not support these findings. This leads to the conclusion that the underlying theoretical models fail to consistently match the observed price equilibria on the market under study. --

    Market Power of the German Beer Industry on Export Markets - An Empirical Study -

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    In this paper the existence and magnitude of market power for the German beer exporters is tested. Two theoretical approaches to model incomplete competition on international markets are employed, the ?pricing to market? (PTM) model the ?residual demand elasticity? (RDE) approach. Estimations for both models over the period from 1991 to 1998 reveal incompatible results regarding the underlying theoretical models and with respect to the approach that is used. While significant market power is indicated in the PTM model, the RDE approach signalizes perfect competition. This leads to the conclusion that the underlying theoretical models have to be extended to consistently match the observed market solutions in this case. --

    The impact of policy reform on productivity and efficiency in Chinese agriculture: A distance function approach

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    The study is devoted to the measurement of productivity and efficiency change in Chinese farming sector over the reform process in the 1980s and 1990s. Within an output distance function framework, an index of total factor productivity is decomposed into technical and allocative efficiency, technical change, and scale effects. We estimate a parametric output distance function using individual farm household data from the province Zhejiang over the period 1986-2000. Results indicate that during the more market-oriented reform period in the mid 1980s productivity and technical efficiency increased while allocative efficiency remain constant. However, productivity growth and technical efficiency slow in the mid 1990s when market orientation of the reforms was reduced and self-sufficiency as a major goal reappeared on the political agenda. --productivity growth,efficiency change,China,stochastic distance frontier

    Water Saving Technology in Chinese Rice Production - Evidence from Survey Data

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    Whereas water is an important input in rice production, China faces severe problems with increasing demand for water and limited water resources. In conventional paddy production, one of the most important irrigated crops, a significant amount of irrigation water is lost due to percolation and evaporation. Therefore, it exist a vivid research in water saving rice technologies. This paper analyzes the adoption of one of these water-saving rice production technologies, the so-called Ground Cover Rice Production System (GCRPS), in the Hubei province. Based on farm survey data several factors which affect the adoption decision could be identified. The adoption decision is treated as a binary choice problem and therefore a probit model is used for the econometric analysis. The main determinants of the adoption decision are the number of previous adoptions, the membership in an extension service and the income of the household. Additionally, soil characteristics show a significant impact on the probability of adoption.China, technology adoption, water, GCRPS, probit, Crop Production/Industries, O30, Q16,

    Impacts of Export Controls On Wheat Markets During the Food Crisis 2007/2008 in Russia and Ukraine

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    This paper investigates the impacts of export controls in Russia and Ukraine on wheat world market price transmission during the 2007/2008 global food crisis. Russia and Ukraine aimed to reduce wheat exports induced by extraordinarily high world market prices to secure sufficient wheat supply on the domestic markets. Utilizing a Markov-Switching vector error correction model (MSVECM), we find that the temporary export restrictions induced negative effects on wheat markets in Russia and Ukraine. Although instability increased on the world markets itself, we have shown that the increase in the market instability was particularly pronounced in Russia and Ukraine. Also, the export restrictions dampened price transmission to the farmers’ prices, which pushed the growers’ prices below their long-run equilibrium level. Thus, investment incentives in wheat production which could result from high world market prices were foregone.International price transmission, wheat market, food crisis, Markov switching error correction model, Russia, Ukraine, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade,

    The transfer of family businesses in Northern Germany and Austria

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    The transfer of family businesses from one generation to the next can be considered as an event with far-reaching effects for the business. Investments and decisions about restructuring the business are closely tied to succession considerations. This paper analyzes successions plans in the primary sector using a survey conducted in 2003 of 348 farmers in Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany) and 278 farmers in Austria. Three samples were obtained: full time farmers in Schleswig-Holstein, full time farmers in Austria and part time farmers in Austria. The structure of the farm sector in both countries differs in several ways: Farmers in Schleswig-Holstein operate on larger scales, are more market oriented and use more intensive production technologies than their Austrian counterparts. In addition, Austrian farmers have distinct traditional attitudes in farming and are likely located in disadvantaged areas on average. The analysis focuses on differences in succession plans and farm family characteristics in the three samples. This encompasses the fact that farms in Schleswig-Holstein have proportionally higher rates of identified successors and farm adjustment plans than in Austria. Results also show that there are not only significant differences in farm succession patterns, but also in value systems. --
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