204 research outputs found

    When to suspect and how to approach a diagnosis of amyloidosis

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    Diagnoses of amyloidosis, particularly transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM), are steadily increasing throughout the world but the condition remains underdiagnosed. Patients with amyloidosis may present to a range of medical and surgical specialties, often with multi-system disease, and a high index of clinical suspicion is required for diagnosis. Bone scintigraphy and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) offer highly sensitive and specific imaging modalities for cardiac amyloidosis. Histological confirmation of amyloid deposition and amyloid type remains the cornerstone of diagnosis for most amyloid types, with ATTR-CM the exception, which may be diagnosed by validated non-biopsy diagnostic criteria in the majority. Histological diagnosis of amyloid has been enhanced by laser capture microdissection and tandem mass spectrometry. Early diagnosis and treatment prior to the development of end organ damage remains key to improving morbidity and mortality for patients with amyloidosis

    RNA Targeting and Gene Editing Strategies for Transthyretin Amyloidosis

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    Transthyretin (TTR) is a tetrameric protein synthesized primarily by the liver. TTR can misfold into pathogenic ATTR amyloid fibrils that deposit in the nerves and heart, causing a progressive and debilitating polyneuropathy (PN) and life-threatening cardiomyopathy (CM). Therapeutic strategies, which are aimed at reducing ongoing ATTR amyloid fibrillogenesis, include stabilization of the circulating TTR tetramer or reduction of TTR synthesis. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) or antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) drugs are highly effective at disrupting the complementary mRNA and inhibiting TTR synthesis. Since their development, patisiran (siRNA), vutrisiran (siRNA) and inotersen (ASO) have all been licensed for treatment of ATTR-PN, and early data suggest these drugs may have efficacy in treating ATTR-CM. An ongoing phase 3 clinical trial will evaluate the efficacy of eplontersen (ASO) in the treatment of both ATTR-PN and ATTR-CM, and a recent phase 1 trial demonstrated the safety of novel in vivo CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing therapy in patients with ATTR amyloidosis. Recent results from trials of gene silencer and gene-editing therapies suggest these novel therapeutic agents have the potential to substantially alter the landscape of treatment for ATTR amyloidosis. Their success has already changed the perception of ATTR amyloidosis from a universally progressive and fatal disease to one that is treatable through availability of highly specific and effective disease-modifying therapies. However, important questions remain including long-term safety of these drugs, potential for off-target gene editing, and how best to monitor the cardiac response to treatment.Kindly check and confirm the processed running title.This is correct

    Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis

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    Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA) is an increasingly recognized cause of heart failure (HF) and mortality worldwide. Advances in non-invasive diagnosis, coupled with the development of effective treatments, have shifted ATTR-CA from a rare and untreatable disease to a relatively prevalent condition that clinicians should consider on a daily basis. Amyloid fibril formation results from age-related failure of homoeostatic mechanisms in wild-type ATTR (ATTRwt) amyloidosis (non-hereditary form) or destabilizing mutations in variant ATTR (ATTRv) amyloidosis (hereditary form). Longitudinal large-scale studies in the United States suggest an incidence of cardiac amyloidosis in the contemporary era of 17 per 100 000, which has increased from a previous estimate of 0.5 per 100 000, which was almost certainly due to misdiagnosis and underestimated. The presence and degree of cardiac involvement is the leading cause of mortality both in ATTRwt and ATTRv amyloidosis, and can be identified in up to 15% of patients hospitalized for HF with preserved ejection fraction. Associated features, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, can preceed by several years the development of symptomatic HF and may serve as early disease markers. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance raise suspicion of disease and might offer markers of treatment response at a myocardial level, such as extracellular volume quantification. Radionuclide scintigraphy with ‘bone’ tracers coupled with biochemical tests may differentiate ATTR from light chain amyloidosis. Therapies able to slow or halt ATTR-CA progression and increase survival are now available. In this evolving scenario, early disease recognition is paramount to derive the greatest benefit from treatment

    Peripheral neuropathy secondary to a ‘domino’ liver transplant: a case report

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    Background: Peripheral neuropathy caused by amyloidosis is one of the well-recognised sequelae of mutations in the transthyretin gene (TTR).// Case presentation: We describe a case of peripheral neuropathy in a White British 74 year old man with wild-type TTR, 8 years following receipt of a ‘domino’ liver transplant (from a donor with a TTR mutation). The clinical phenotype and neurophysiology, coupled with presence of ATTR amyloid deposits on fat biopsy, established the diagnosis of ATTR amyloid neuropathy, as a consequence of receipt of a variant-TTR secreting liver. A nerve biopsy was not clinically appropriate for this patient. Such cases are rare since recipients of such livers are typically restricted to people whose natural lifespan is unlikely to stretch into the anticipated symptomatic period of ATTR amyloidosis. However, novel “gene silencing” therapeutics are now available which can dramatically alter the course of this disorder, by reducing the proportion of abnormal proteins.// Conclusions: This represents a rare but predictable iatrogenic side effect, and doctors should be aware of this eventuality occurring in a shorter time span than previously anticipated

    Peripheral neuropathy secondary to a ‘domino’ liver transplant:a case report

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    Abstract Background Peripheral neuropathy caused by amyloidosis is one of the well-recognised sequelae of mutations in the transthyretin gene (TTR). Case presentation We describe a case of peripheral neuropathy in a White British 74 year old man with wild-type TTR, 8 years following receipt of a ‘domino’ liver transplant (from a donor with a TTR mutation). The clinical phenotype and neurophysiology, coupled with presence of ATTR amyloid deposits on fat biopsy, established the diagnosis of ATTR amyloid neuropathy, as a consequence of receipt of a variant-TTR secreting liver. A nerve biopsy was not clinically appropriate for this patient. Such cases are rare since recipients of such livers are typically restricted to people whose natural lifespan is unlikely to stretch into the anticipated symptomatic period of ATTR amyloidosis. However, novel “gene silencing” therapeutics are now available which can dramatically alter the course of this disorder, by reducing the proportion of abnormal proteins. Conclusions This represents a rare but predictable iatrogenic side effect, and doctors should be aware of this eventuality occurring in a shorter time span than previously anticipated

    Imaging-Guided Treatment for Cardiac Amyloidosis

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    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will explore the role of cardiac imaging in guiding treatment in the two most commonly encountered subtypes of cardiac amyloidosis (immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis [AL] and transthyretin amyloidosis [ATTR]). RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in multi-parametric cardiac imaging involving a combination of bone scintigraphy, echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in earlier diagnosis and initiation of treatment, while the evolution of techniques such as longitudinal strain and extracellular volume quantification allow clinicians to track individuals' response to treatment. Imaging developments have led to a deeper understanding of the disease process and treatment mechanisms, which in combination result in improved patient outcomes. The rapidly expanding treatment regimens for cardiac amyloidosis have led to an even greater reliance on cardiac imaging to help establish an accurate diagnosis, monitor treatment response and aid the adjustment of treatment strategies accordingly

    Identification of wild-type transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome surgery (CACTuS)

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    AIMS: Wild-type transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is an infiltrative cardiomyopathy with a poor prognosis. The condition is associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which often precedes the ATTRwt diagnosis by several years. The aim of the study was (i) to screen patients with a recent history of CTS for ATTRwt using red flags, (ii) to determine whether patients with screened ATTRwt had less advanced disease compared with patients with clinical ATTRwt, and (iii) to assess the sensitivity and specificity of known red flags in ATTRwt. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients aged ≥60 years at the time of CTS surgery were invited for screening. Red flags were defined as elevated biomarker levels of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) or cardiac troponin, an electrocardiogram pattern associated with ATTRwt, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and impaired longitudinal strain with apical sparring. All patients with a red flag were referred for a diagnostic scintigraphy. Patients with ATTRwt diagnosed by screening were compared with patients with clinical ATTRwt (n = 51) matched by age, gender, and CTS surgery. Among the 120 enrolled subjects (mean age 74.5 years, 90% male), the suspicion of ATTR was raised in 67 (55.8%), and 10 (8.3%) were diagnosed with ATTRwt. Patients identified with ATTRwt were predominantly asymptomatic and had mildly elevated NT-proBNP, mildly increased LVH, preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, and systolic longitudinal function, which differed significantly from clinical ATTRwt controls (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The study found an ATTRwt prevalence of 8.3% in a population of age and gender-selected patients with a recent history of CTS. The identified patients with ATTRwt had less structural and functional cardiac involvement than clinical ATTRwt controls

    Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Complicating Therapy With Inotersen, an Antisense Oligonucleotide Inhibitor: A Case Report

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    Inotersen is an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor licensed for the treatment of polyneuropathy complicating hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRv). Nephrotoxicity has been reported with inotersen, including progression to end stage renal disease. We describe the first reported case of inotersen-associated nephrotic syndrome secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and review the literature concerning inotersen-induced nephrotoxicity. We report a woman in her early 30s with ATTRv associated with the (p.V50M) transthyretin (TTR) variant, who presented with nephrotic syndrome 7 months after commencement of inotersen. Renal histology demonstrated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and scanty glomerular amyloid deposition. Discontinuation of inotersen alone resulted in complete clinical and biochemical resolution of nephrotic syndrome. Inotersen is associated with significant nephrotoxicity. In the phase III NEURO-TTR clinical trial, 3% of patients in the treatment arm developed a crescentic glomerulonephritis. All affected patients carried the (p.V50M) TTR variant which is known to be associated with renal amyloid deposition. This case adds to spectrum of renal disease associated with inotersen and indicates that discontinuation of the drug alone may result in resolution of renal complications without additional immunosuppression. Monitoring of renal function is essential in patients with ATTRv receiving inotersen, particularly if there is evidence of existing renal amyloid
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