3,580 research outputs found

    English as the Lingua Franca and the Economic Value of Other Languages: the Case of the Language of Work of Immigrants and Non-immigrants in the Montreal Labour Market.

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    With data from the 2006 Canadian census, we investigate the determinants and the economic values of different languages used at work in the Montreal metropolitan area. The working population is divided into three mother tongues groups: French, English and Others. Three indicators are defined: use of French at work as a second language, and use of an official language at work as opposed to an non-official language. One interesting result is that there is no relationship between schooling and the use of French at work for the English mother tongue group, while schooling is positively related to the use of English at work for the French mothe tongue group and to the use of an offical language at work for the Other mother tongues group. We look at the returns to using a second language at work by means of earnings regressions (with both OLS and IV to account for the endogeneity of the language of work). We find that for the English mother tongue group, using French at work does not pay. In contract, there is a high payoff to using English at work for the French Mother tongue group. For the Other mother tongues group, there is a high payoff to using an official language at work and a modest one to using English instead of French.language of work, mother tongue, immigrants, Montreal, earnings

    Why is Immigrants’ Access to Employment lower in Montreal than in Toronto?

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    This paper explores reasons why the employment rate gap between immigrants and Canadian born individuals is larger in Montreal than in Toronto. A major reason is language: relative to Canadian born individuals, immigrants in Montreal are significantly less likely to know French than their Toronto counterparts to know English and their knowledge of French is less rewarded by employers than their Toronto counterparts’ knowledge of English. We also find that holding other factors constant, the performance of immigrants according to their countries of origin is remarkably similar in Montreal and Toronto: in both metropolitan areas, immigrants from Europe and India generally perform better than immigrants from China, Taiwan and Muslim countries. While we do not find any evidence that Quebec’s different immigration policy is causing the larger immigrant employment rate gap in Montreal, we cannot rule out the possibility that immigrants would be subject to more labour market discrimination in Montreal than in Toronto. However, this discrimination would be French language related as opposed to being ethnicity related. Results are generally similar for both male and female immigrants.Différences de taux d'emploi, immigrants versus personnes nées au Canada, Montréal et Toronto, politiques d'immigration

    Duration of Access of Canadian Immigrants to the First Job in Intended Occupation

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    Using detailed information on employment trajectory provided by the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada (LSIC), this study examines labour market outcomes of recent immigrants in terms of duration of access to the first job in their intended occupation, as determined by a question in the first wave interview on labour market intentions. The matching between actual and intended occupations is obtained from the first two digits of National Occupational Classification codes, which consider successively occupation type and skill level. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, the study investigates the roles of factors related to human and social capital in speeding up the matching process of actual and intended occupations. It is found that the initial year in Canada is critical for an immigrant to land a job in intended field; after that period, the hazards of finding employment in intended occupation flatten down. In general, those with intention to work in non-professional jobs, such as sales and services, trades, transport and equipment operators, primary industry, and processing and manufacturing occupations, enter the first job in intended occupation more quickly. The results also show that education, English language ability, Canadian work experience and friend networks facilitate access to intended occupation..Immigrants, Occupation, Labour market, Canada

    Language, Employment and Earnings in the United States: Spanish-English Differentials from 1970 to 1990

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    This paper analyzes employment and earnings differentials between Spanish speakers and English speakers in the United States, using data from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 U.S. censuses. The results show that Spanish speakers, both men and women, do not perform as well in the labor market as English speakers. The results also reveal that Spanish-English earnings and unemployment differentials increased slightly in the 1970s, most likely because of rapid growth in the number of Spanish speakers. By contrast, these differentials increased sharply in the 1980s, also a period of rapidly increasing supply. However, there is no evidence that the widening of differentials in the 1980s reflects an increase in the labor market rewards to English language proficiency. Rather, they appear to be the result of Spanish speakers having relatively little of those labor market characteristics, most notably education, whose market value increased dramatically during the 1980s.

    Débat : Commentaires de Gilles Grenier

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    L’immigration et les revenus relatifs des femmes, des jeunes et des personnes peu scolarisées au Canada

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    Le but de cette étude est d’examiner l’effet de l’immigration sur le marché de certains groupes de travailleurs canadiens désavantagés, soit les femmes, les jeunes travailleurs et les travailleurs peu scolarisés. L’analyse est faite à partir de micro-données des recensements de 1981 et 1986. Sur la base de leur répartition par secteur d’activité et par profession, les immigrants récents sont plus susceptibles d’être en concurrence avec les travailleurs canadiens désavantagés qu’avec les travailleurs avantagés. Cependant, une analyse des revenus de travail relatifs selon la région montre que la relation entre les écarts de revenus et la proportion d’immigrants n’est pas la même pour tous les groupes désavantagés. Plus particulièrement, les écarts de revenus entre hommes et femmes ont tendance à être plus petits dans les régions où il y a beaucoup d’immigrants que dans celles où il y en a peu. L’immigration ne semble donc pas avoir d’impact négatif sur le marché du travail des femmes et a peut-être même un effet positif. Par contre, les écarts de revenus entre les hommes jeunes et les hommes plus âgés sont plus grands dans les régions où il y a beaucoup d’immigrants que dans celles où il y en a peu. Il est donc possible que l’immigration ait affecté négativement les jeunes travailleurs de sexe masculin, quoique d’autres facteurs aient aussi pu jouer.The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of immigration on the market of some disadvantaged groups of Canadian workers, i.e., women, younger workers, and workers with low levels of schooling. The analysis is done with the micro-data from the 1981 and 1986 Canadian Censuses. Based on their distribution by industry and occupation, recent immigrants are more likely to compete with the disadvantaged groups of Canadian workers than with advantaged ones. However, an analysis of relative earnings by region shows that the relationship between the earnings differentials and the proportion of immigrants is not the same for all the disadvantaged groups. In particular, earnings differentials between men and women tend to be lower in the regions with a high proportion of immigrants than in those with a low proportion. Thus, immigration does not seem to have a negative impact on women's labour market and may even have a positive one. In contrast, earnings differentials between younger and prime age males are larger in the regions with a high proportion of immigrants than in those with a low proportion. Thus, immigration may have affected negatively the economic position of younger males, although other factors may have played a role as well

    Models of Firm Behavior Under Minimum Wage Legislation

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    This paper sets out three simple models of firm behavior under minimum wage legislation. The key feature of these models is that they account for important aspects of the government's mechanism for monitoring and enforcing compliance with the minimum wage law. The major results of the paper are (1) that minimum wage legislation does not generally lead to upward movements along labor demand curves but rather, that it often leads to movements off, and to the left, of the labor demand curve; (2) that minimum wage legislation is likely to have a positive effect on the distribution of wages paid to workers who would earn less than the minimum in the absence of the legislation, but is not likely to bring all of those workers up to the minimum; and (3) that imposing additional penalties on second offenders promotes compliance by firms with no previous violations. The paper considers the implications of these results for empirical work on the adverse employment effects of minimum wage legislation andfor the design of government compliance mechanisms.

    Changements de structures et emploi dans les années 2000 au Canada

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    Ce texte fait une analyse de quatre types de transformations qui ont affecté le marché du travail canadien et qui continueront à le faire au cours du prochain siècle. Premièrement, sur le plan de la démographie, le marché du travail s'est caractérisé par le vieillissement de la population et par l'abaissement de l'âge à la retraite. Deuxièmement, la répartition sectorielle des emplois a beaucoup changé, avec une forte augmentation de la part relative du secteur des services au détriment de celle du secteur des biens. Troisièmement, le chômage a fortement augmenté au cours des dernières décennies. Quatrièmement, la répartition du revenu et de la richesse a évolué vers un accroissement des inégalités. Ces changements sont étudiés dans un contexte canadien, mais on observe des tendances semblables dans d'autres pays industrialisés. Le texte essaie ensuite défaire des projections pour l'avenir. On identifie trois facteurs importants qui pourraient changer la nature du marché du travail dans les premières décennies du vingt et unième siècle. Premièrement, il y aura moins de jeunes qui se joindront au marché du travail et le taux d'activité des femmes n'augmentera pas aussi vite qu'il ne l'a fait dans le passé, ce qui fait que le marché du travail sera moins encombré. Deuxièmement, suite aux besoins reliés au vieillissement de la population, il devrait y avoir de l'emploi pour les jeunes qui se joindront au marché du travail. Troisièmement, le rythme des changements structurels devrait diminuer dans l'avenir. Le marché du travail de demain, quoique très différent de celui d'aujourd'hui, pourrait donc être caractérisé par une plus grande stabilité.This paper analyses four types of transformations that have affected the labour market and that mil continue to do so during the next century in Canada. Firstly, on the demographic side, the labour market has been characterized by population aging and by a reduction in the retirement age. Secondly, the sectoral distribution of employment has changed substantially, with a significant increase in the relative share of employment in the service sectors compared to that in the goods producing sectors. Thirdly, unemployment has increased markedly during the last decades. Fourthly, the distribution of income and wealth has evolved toward an increase in inequality. Those changes are analysed in a Canadian context, but similar trends have been observed in other developed countries. The paper continues with an attempt to project the future. Three factors are identified that may change the nature of the labour market in the first decades of the twenty first century. Firstly, there will be fewer young people joining the labour market and women's labour force participation will not increase as fast as it did in the past, with the result that the labour market will be less crowded. Secondly, because of the needs of an aging population, there should be jobs for younger workers entering the labour market. Thirdly, the pace of the structural changes should decrease. The labour market of tomorrow, although it will be very different from the one of today, could be characterized by greater stability

    Participation au marché du travail, revenus et langues au Québec : le cas des femmes mariées

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    Cette étude analyse les revenus des femmes mariées par groupe linguistique au Québec en 1980. De façon à tenir compte des particularités du marché du travail des femmes, le modèle inclut des variables concernant le mariage, la présence d’enfants et le biais de sélection dû à la participation au marché du travail. Parmi les résultats de l’analyse, il ressort que les attributs linguistiques ont peu d’effet sur le revenu et que les femmes allophones se distinguent des autres quant à l’effet de certains facteurs de détermination du revenu.This paper studies the earnings of married women by language group in Quebec in 1980. In order to account for the particular aspects of the female labour market, the specification of the model includes variables related to marriage, children and selection bias due to labour force participation. Among the results of the analysis, it is found that language attributes do not have an important impact on earnings and that allophone women are different from the others with respect to some of the factors that determine earnings
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