2,575 research outputs found

### Making Evildoers Pay: Resource-Competitive Broadcast in Sensor Networks

Consider a time-slotted, single-hop, wireless sensor network (WSN) consisting
of n correct devices and and t=f*n Byzantine devices where f>=0 is any
constant; that is, the Byzantine devices may outnumber the correct ones. There
exists a trusted sender Alice who wishes to deliver a message m over a single
channel to the correct devices. There also exists a malicious user Carol who
controls the t Byzantine devices and uses them to disrupt the communication
channel. For a constant k>=2, the correct and Byzantine devices each possess a
meager energy budget of O(n^{1/k}), Alice and Carol each possess a limited
budget of \tilde{O}(n^{1/k}), and sending or listening in a slot incurs unit
cost. This general setup captures the inherent challenges of guaranteeing
communication despite scarce resources and attacks on the network. Given this
Alice versus Carol scenario, we ask: Is communication of m feasible and, if so,
at what cost?
We develop a protocol which, for an arbitrarily small constant \epsilon>0,
ensures that at least (1-\epsilon)n correct devices receive m with high
probability. Furthermore, if Carol's devices expend T energy jamming the
channel, then Alice and the correct devices each spend only
\tilde{O}(T^{1/(k+1)}). In other words, delaying the transmission of m forces a
jammer to rapidly deplete its energy supply and, consequently, cease attacks on
the network

### Parallel Finger Search Structures

In this paper we present two versions of a parallel finger structure FS on p processors that supports searches, insertions and deletions, and has a finger at each end. This is to our knowledge the first implementation of a parallel search structure that is work-optimal with respect to the finger bound and yet has very good parallelism (within a factor of O(log p)^2) of optimal). We utilize an extended implicit batching framework that transparently facilitates the use of FS by any parallel program P that is modelled by a dynamically generated DAG D where each node is either a unit-time instruction or a call to FS.
The work done by FS is bounded by the finger bound F_L (for some linearization L of D), i.e. each operation on an item with distance r from a finger takes O(log r+1) amortized work. Running P using the simpler version takes O((T_1+F_L)/p + T_infty + d * ((log p)^2 + log n)) time on a greedy scheduler, where T_1, T_infty are the size and span of D respectively, and n is the maximum number of items in FS, and d is the maximum number of calls to FS along any path in D. Using the faster version, this is reduced to O((T_1+F_L)/p + T_infty + d *(log p)^2 + s_L) time, where s_L is the weighted span of D where each call to FS is weighted by its cost according to F_L. FS can be extended to a fixed number of movable fingers.
The data structures in our paper fit into the dynamic multithreading paradigm, and their performance bounds are directly composable with other data structures given in the same paradigm. Also, the results can be translated to practical implementations using work-stealing schedulers

### Communication Primitives in Cognitive Radio Networks

Cognitive radio networks are a new type of multi-channel wireless network in
which different nodes can have access to different sets of channels. By
providing multiple channels, they improve the efficiency and reliability of
wireless communication. However, the heterogeneous nature of cognitive radio
networks also brings new challenges to the design and analysis of distributed
algorithms.
In this paper, we focus on two fundamental problems in cognitive radio
networks: neighbor discovery, and global broadcast. We consider a network
containing $n$ nodes, each of which has access to $c$ channels. We assume the
network has diameter $D$, and each pair of neighbors have at least $k\geq 1$,
and at most $k_{max}\leq c$, shared channels. We also assume each node has at
most $\Delta$ neighbors. For the neighbor discovery problem, we design a
randomized algorithm CSeek which has time complexity
$\tilde{O}((c^2/k)+(k_{max}/k)\cdot\Delta)$. CSeek is flexible and robust,
which allows us to use it as a generic "filter" to find "well-connected"
neighbors with an even shorter running time. We then move on to the global
broadcast problem, and propose CGCast, a randomized algorithm which takes
$\tilde{O}((c^2/k)+(k_{max}/k)\cdot\Delta+D\cdot\Delta)$ time. CGCast uses
CSeek to achieve communication among neighbors, and uses edge coloring to
establish an efficient schedule for fast message dissemination.
Towards the end of the paper, we give lower bounds for solving the two
problems. These lower bounds demonstrate that in many situations, CSeek and
CGCast are near optimal

### On Bioelectric Algorithms

Cellular bioelectricity describes the biological phenomenon in which cells in living tissue generate and maintain patterns of voltage gradients across their membranes induced by differing concentrations of charged ions. A growing body of research suggests that bioelectric patterns represent an ancient system that plays a key role in guiding many important developmental processes including tissue regeneration, tumor suppression, and embryogenesis. This paper applies techniques from distributed algorithm theory to help better understand how cells work together to form these patterns. To do so, we present the cellular bioelectric model (CBM), a new computational model that captures the primary capabilities and constraints of bioelectric interactions between cells and their environment. We use this model to investigate several important topics from the relevant biology research literature. We begin with symmetry breaking, analyzing a simple cell definition that when combined in single hop or multihop topologies, efficiently solves leader election and the maximal independent set problem, respectively - indicating that these classical symmetry breaking tasks are well-matched to bioelectric mechanisms. We then turn our attention to the information processing ability of bioelectric cells, exploring upper and lower bounds for approximate solutions to threshold and majority detection, and then proving that these systems are in fact Turing complete - resolving an open question about the computational power of bioelectric interactions

### Shrewd Selection Speeds Surfing: Use Smart EXP3!

In this paper, we explore the use of multi-armed bandit online learning
techniques to solve distributed resource selection problems. As an example, we
focus on the problem of network selection. Mobile devices often have several
wireless networks at their disposal. While choosing the right network is vital
for good performance, a decentralized solution remains a challenge. The
impressive theoretical properties of multi-armed bandit algorithms, like EXP3,
suggest that it should work well for this type of problem. Yet, its real-word
performance lags far behind. The main reasons are the hidden cost of switching
networks and its slow rate of convergence. We propose Smart EXP3, a novel
bandit-style algorithm that (a) retains the good theoretical properties of
EXP3, (b) bounds the number of switches, and (c) yields significantly better
performance in practice. We evaluate Smart EXP3 using simulations, controlled
experiments, and real-world experiments. Results show that it stabilizes at the
optimal state, achieves fairness among devices and gracefully deals with
transient behaviors. In real world experiments, it can achieve 18% faster
download over alternate strategies. We conclude that multi-armed bandit
algorithms can play an important role in distributed resource selection
problems, when practical concerns, such as switching costs and convergence
time, are addressed.Comment: Full pape

### From international deployments to an Iowa community college: experiences of veterans who have made the transition

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of veterans who have made the transition from international deployments to an Iowa community college. The essence of these experiences was solicited by asking the question: How do veterans who have made the transition from international deployments to an Iowa community college describe their experiences? Constructionism provided the epistemological foundation for this study. An interpretivist perspective was used to analyze data collected via face-to-face interviews, participant observation, and document evaluation. Van Gennep’s liminality theory provided a theoretical lens through which to interpret that analysis. This interpretation revealed six themes, namely: (a) from civilian to warfighter—calibration and detachment, (b) from civilian to warfighter—ambiguity and metamorphoses, (c) from civilian to warfighter—consummation and reflection, (d) from warfighter to student—calibration and detachment, (e) from warfighter to student—ambiguity and metamorphoses, and (f) from warfighter to student—consummation and reflection. Study findings revealed that each participant had navigated simultaneous liminal stages prior to, during, and after his or her transition from an international deployment to an Iowa community college. Study conclusions include policy and practice implications for a broad spectrum of Iowa community college stakeholders. Recommendations for future research include conducting additional investigations of under-researched subsets of transitioning veteran cohorts

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