341 research outputs found

    Carbon burning in intermediate mass primordial stars

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    The evolution of a zero metallicity 9 M_s star is computed, analyzed and compared with that of a solar metallicity star of identical ZAMS mass. Our computations range from the main sequence until the formation of a massive oxygen-neon white dwarf. Special attention has been payed to carbon burning in conditions of partial degeneracy as well as to the subsequent thermally pulsing Super-AGB phase. The latter develops in a fashion very similar to that of a solar metallicity 9 M_s star, as a consequence of the significant enrichment in metals of the stellar envelope that ensues due to the so-called third dredge-up episode. The abundances in mass of the main isotopes in the final ONe core resulting from the evolution are X(^{16}O) approx 0.59, X(^{20}Ne) approx 0.28 and X(^{24}Mg) approx 0.05. This core is surrounded by a 0.05 M_s buffer mainly composed of carbon and oxygen, and on top of it a He envelope of mass 10^{-4} M_sComment: 11 pages, 11 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    Explosion of white dwarfs harboring hybrid CONe cores

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    Recently, it has been found that off-centre carbon burning in a subset of intermediate-mass stars does not propagate all the way to the center, resulting in a class of hybrid CONe cores. Here, we consider the possibility that stars hosting these hybrid CONe cores might belong to a close binary system and, eventually, become white dwarfs accreting from a non-degenerate companion at rates leading to a supernova explosion. We have computed the hydrodynamical phase of the explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs harboring hybrid cores, assuming that the explosion starts at the center, either as a detonation (as may be expected in some degenerate merging scenarios) or as a deflagration (that afterwards transitions into a delayed detonation). We assume these hybrid cores are made of a central CO volume, of mass M(CO), surrounded by an ONe shell. We show that, in case of a pure detonation, a medium-sized CO-rich region, M(CO)<0.4 Msun, results in the ejection of a small fraction of the mantle while leaving a massive bound remnant. Part of this remnant is made of the products of the detonation, Fe-group nuclei, but they are buried in its inner regions, unless convection is activated during the ensuing cooling and shrinking phase of the remnant. In contrast, and somehow paradoxically, delayed detonations do not leave remnants but for the minimum M(CO) we have explored, M(CO)=0.2 Msun, and even in this case the remnant is as small as 0.13 Msun. The ejecta produced by these delayed detonations are characterized by slightly smaller masses of 56Ni and substantially smaller kinetic energies than obtained for a delayed detonation of a 'normal' CO white dwarf. The optical emission expected from these explosions would hardly match the observational properties of typical Type Ia supernovae, although they make interesting candidates for the subluminous class of SN2002cx-like or SNIax.Comment: Accepted for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11 pages, 4 figure

    The late stages of the evolution of intermediate-mass primordial stars: the effects of overshooting

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    We compute and analyze the evolution of primordial stars of masses at the ZAMS between 5 M_sun and 10 M_sun, with and without overshooting. Our main goals are to determine the nature of the remnants of massive intermediate-mass primordial stars and to check the influence of overshooting in their evolution. Our calculations cover stellar evolution from the main sequence phase until the formation of the degenerate cores and the thermally pulsing phase. We have obtained the values for the limiting masses of Population III progenitor stars leading to carbon-oxygen and oxygen-neon compact cores. Moreover, we have also obtained the limiting mass for which isolated primordial stars would lead to core-collapse supernovae after the end of the main central burning phases. Considering a moderate amount of overshooting the mass thresholds at the ZAMS for the formation of carbon-oxygen and oxygen-neon degenerate cores shifts to smaller values by about 2 M_sun. As a by-product of our calculations, we have also obtained the structure and composition profiles of the resulting compact remnants. Opposite to what happens with solar metallicity objects, the final fate of primordial stars is not straightforward determined from the mass of the compact cores at the end of carbon burning. Instead, the small mass-loss rates typically associated to stellar winds of low metallicity stars might allow the growth of the resulting degenerate cores up to the Chandrasekhar mass, on time scales one or two orders of magnitude shorter than the time required to loose the envelope. This would lead to the formation of supernovae for initial masses as small as about 5 M_sun

    Evolution and CNO yields of Z=10^-5 stars and possible effects on CEMP production

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    Our main goals are to get a deeper insight into the evolution and final fates of intermediate-mass, extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. We also aim to investigate their C, N, and O yields. Using the Monash University Stellar Evolution code we computed and analysed the evolution of stars of metallicity Z = 10^-5 and masses between 4 and 9 M_sun, from their main sequence until the late thermally pulsing (super) asymptotic giant branch, TP-(S)AGB phase. Our model stars experience a strong C, N, and O envelope enrichment either due to the second dredge-up, the dredge-out phenomenon, or the third dredge-up early during the TP-(S)AGB phase. Their late evolution is therefore similar to that of higher metallicity objects. When using a standard prescription for the mass loss rates during the TP-(S)AGB phase, the computed stars lose most of their envelopes before their cores reach the Chandrasekhar mass, so our standard models do not predict the occurrence of SNI1/2 for Z = 10^-5 stars. However, we find that the reduction of only one order of magnitude in the mass-loss rates, which are particularly uncertain at this metallicity, would prevent the complete ejection of the envelope, allowing the stars to either explode as an SNI1/2 or become an electron-capture SN. Our calculations stop due to an instability near the base of the convective envelope that hampers further convergence and leaves remnant envelope masses between 0.25 M_sun for our 4 M_sun model and 1.5 M_sun for our 9 M_sun model. We present two sets of C, N, and O yields derived from our full calculations and computed under two different assumptions, namely, that the instability causes a practically instant loss of the remnant envelope or that the stars recover and proceed with further thermal pulses. Our results have implications for the early chemical evolution of the Universe.Comment: 12 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    The influence of nondipolar magnetic field and neutron star precession on braking indexes of radiopulsars

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    Some of radiopulsars have anomalous braking index values n=Ωٚ/Ω˙2∌±(103Ă·104)n = \Omega \ddot{\Omega} / \dot{\Omega}^2 \sim \pm (10^3 \div 10^4) . It is shown that such values may be related with nondipolar magnetic field. The precession of neutron star lead to rotation (in reference frame related with neutron star) of vector of angular velocity Ω⃗\vec{\Omega} along direction of neutron star magnetic dipole moment m⃗\vec{m} with angular velocity Ω⃗p\vec{\Omega}_{p}. This process may cause the altering of electric current flow through inner gap and consequently the current losses with the same time scale as precession period Tp=2π/ΩpT_{p} = 2\pi / \Omega_{p}. It occurs because of electric current in inner gaps is determined by Goldreich-Julian charge density ρGJ=−Ω⃗⋅B⃗2πc\rho_{GJ} = -\frac{\vec{\Omega} \cdot \vec{B}}{2\pi c}, which are depend on angle between direction of small scale magnetic field and angular velocity Ω⃗\vec{\Omega}. It is essential that pulsar tubes nearby neutron star surface are curved. In current paper it is considered the only inner gaps with steady, electron charge limited flow regime.Comment: 11 pages, 17 figure

    Nucleosynthetic yields of Z=10−510^{-5} intermediate-mass stars

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    Abridged: Observed abundances of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars in the Halo hold clues for the understanding of the ancient universe. Interpreting these clues requires theoretical stellar models at the low-Z regime. We provide the nucleosynthetic yields of intermediate-mass Z=10−510^{-5} stars between 3 and 7.5 MsunM_{sun}, and quantify the effects of the uncertain wind rates. We expect these yields can be eventually used to assess the contribution to the chemical inventory of the early universe, and to help interpret abundances of selected C-enhanced EMP stars. By comparing our models and other existing in the literature, we explore evolutionary and nucleosynthetic trends with wind prescriptions and with initial metallicity. We compare our results to observations of CEMP-s stars belonging to the Halo. The yields of intermediate-mass EMP stars reflect the effects of very deep second dredge-up (for the most massive models), superimposed with the combined signatures of hot-bottom burning and third dredge-up. We confirm the reported trend that models with initial metallicity Zini_{ini} <= 0.001 give positive yields of 12C,15N,16O^{12}C, ^{15}N, ^{16}O, and 26Mg^{26}Mg. The 20Ne,21Ne^{20}Ne, ^{21}Ne, and 24Mg^{24}Mg yields, which were reported to be negative at Zini_{ini} = 0.0001, become positive for Z=10−510^{-5}. The results using two different prescriptions for mass-loss rates differ widely in terms of the duration of the thermally-pulsing (Super) AGB phase, overall efficiency of the third dredge-up episode, and nucleosynthetic yields. The most efficient of the standard wind rates frequently used in the literature seems to favour agreement between our yield results and observational data. Regardless of the wind prescription, all our models become N-enhanced EMP stars.Comment: 18 pages, 12 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    The formation of DA white dwarfs with thin hydrogen envelopes

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    We study the formation and evolution of DA white dwarfs, the progenitors of which have experienced a late thermal pulse (LTP) shortly after the departure from the thermally pulsing AGB. To this end, we compute the complete evolution of an initially 2.7 M⊙ star all the way from the zero-age main sequence to the white dwarf stage. We find that most of the original H-rich material of the post-AGB remnant is burnt during the post-LTP evolution, with the result that, at entering its white dwarf cooling track, the remaining H envelope becomes 10-6 M⊙ in agreement with asteroseismological inferences for some ZZ Ceti stars.Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y GeofísicasInstituto de Astrofísica de La Plat

    The best fit for the observed galaxy Counts-in-Cell distribution function

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    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the first dense redshift survey encompassing a volume large enough to find the best analytic probability density function that fits the galaxy Counts-in-Cells distribution fV(N)f_V(N), the frequency distribution of galaxy counts in a volume VV. Different analytic functions have been previously proposed that can account for some of the observed features of the observed frequency counts, but fail to provide an overall good fit to this important statistical descriptor of the galaxy large-scale distribution. Our goal is to find the probability density function that better fits the observed Counts-in-Cells distribution fV(N)f_V(N). We have made a systematic study of this function applied to several samples drawn from the SDSS. We show the effective ways to deal with incompleteness of the sample (masked data) in the calculation of fV(N)f_V(N). We use LasDamas simulations to estimate the errors in the calculation. We test four different distribution functions to find the best fit: the Gravitational Quasi-Equilibrium distribution, the Negative Binomial Distribution, the Log Normal distribution and the Log Normal Distribution including a bias parameter. In the two latter cases, we apply a shot-noise correction to the distributions assuming the local Poisson model. We show that the best fit for the Counts-in-Cells distribution function is provided by the Negative Binomial distribution. In addition, at large scales the Log Normal distribution modified with the inclusion of the bias term also performs a satisfactory fit of the empirical values of fV(N)f_V(N). Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of a bias term in the Log Normal distribution is necessary to fit the observed galaxy Count-in-Cells distribution function.Comment: 12 pages, 16 figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    The frequency of occurrence of novae hosting an ONe white dwarf

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    In this paper, we revisit the problem of the determination of the frequency of occurrence of galactic nova outbursts which involve an oxygen-neon (ONe) white dwarf. The improvement with respect to previous work on the subject derives from the fact that we use the results that our evolutionary calculations provide for the final mass and for the chemical profiles of intermediate-to-massive primary components of close binary systems. In particular, the final evolutionary stages, such as the carbon burning phase, have been carefully followed for the whole range of masses of interest. The chemical profiles obtained with our evolutionary code are of interest in determining the chemical composition of the ejecta after being processed through the thermonuclear runaway, although such other factors as the efficiency of the mixing between the accreted material and that of the underlying white dwarf must also be considered. In our calculations of the frequency of occurrence of nova outbursts involving an ONe white dwarf, we also take into account the observational selection effects introduced by the different recurrence times of the outbursts and by the spatial distribution of novae. In spite of the very different evolutionary sequences, we find that approximately 1/3 of the novae observed in outburst should involve an oxygen-neon white dwarf, in agreement with previous theoretical estimates.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in A&