84 research outputs found

    Ultra-Mutation in IDH Wild-Type Glioblastomas of Patients Younger than 55 Years is Associated with Defective Mismatch Repair, Microsatellite Instability, and Giant Cell Enrichment

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    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are classified into isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutants and IDH wild-types (IDH-wt). This study aimed at identifying the mutational assets of IDH-wt GBMs in patients aged 18-54 years for which limited data are available

    IDH-wild type glioblastomas featuring at least 30% giant cells are characterized by frequent RB1 and NF1 alterations and hypermutation

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    : Giant cell glioblastoma (GC-GBM) is a rare variant of IDH-wt GBM histologically characterized by the presence of numerous multinucleated giant cells and molecularly considered a hybrid between IDH-wt and IDH-mutant GBM. The lack of an objective definition, specifying the percentage of giant cells required for this diagnosis, may account for the absence of a definite molecular profile of this variant. This study aimed to clarify the molecular landscape of GC-GBM, exploring the mutations and copy number variations of 458 cancer-related genes, tumor mutational burden (TMB), and microsatellite instability (MSI) in 39 GBMs dichotomized into having 30-49% (15 cases) or\u2009 65\u200950% (24 cases) GCs. The type and prevalence of the genetic alterations in this series was not associated with the GCs content (<\u200950% or 65\u200950%). Most cases (82% and 51.2%) had impairment in TP53/MDM2 and PTEN/PI3K pathways, but a high proportion also featured TERT promoter mutations (61.5%) and RB1 (25.6%) or NF1 (25.6%) alterations. EGFR amplification was detected in 18% cases in association with a shorter overall survival (P\u2009=\u20090.004). Sixteen (41%) cases had a TMB\u2009>\u200910 mut/Mb, including two (5%) that harbored MSI and one with a POLE mutation. The frequency of RB1 and NF1 alterations and TMB counts were significantly higher compared to 567 IDH wild type (P\u2009<\u20090.0001; P\u2009=\u20090.0003; P\u2009<\u20090.0001) and 26 IDH-mutant (P\u2009<\u20090.0001; P\u2009=\u20090.0227; P\u2009<\u20090.0001) GBMs in the TCGA PanCancer Atlas cohort. These findings demonstrate that the molecular landscape of GBMs with at least 30% giant cells is dominated by the impairment of TP53/MDM2 and PTEN/PI3K pathways, and additionally characterized by frequent RB1 alterations and hypermutation and by EGFR amplification in more aggressive cases. The high frequency of hypermutated cases suggests that GC-GBMs might be candidates for immune check-point inhibitors clinical trials

    The preoperative serum ratio of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), PSA/FT index ratio, and prostate cancer. Results in 220 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

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    Objectives: To evaluate associations of preoperative total prostate specific antigen (PSA) to free testosterone (FT), the PSA/FT index ratio, with features of pathology prostate cancer (PCA) and to investigate its prognostic potential in clustering the PCA population. Patients and methods: After excluding criteria, the records of 220 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) were retrospectively reviewed. Serum samples of PSA, total testosterone (TT) and FT were collected at 8.00 A.M., one month after biopsies and before RP. The PSA/FT ratio was computed in the population of patients who were clustered in groups according to ranking intervals of the PSA/FT ratio which identified at least 4 clusters which were coded as A, B, C, and D. The independent associations of the PSA/FT index ratio were assessed by statistical methods and a two-sided P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: TT correlated to FT which was a significant predictor of PSA in the population of patients who were subsequently clustered, according to increasing interval values of the PSA/FT index ratio, in groups that showed a stronger linear association of FT with PSA. The PSA/FT index ratio significantly associated with pathology features of prostate cancer such as pathology Gleason score (pGS), invasion of the seminal vesicles (pT3b), proportion of positive cores (P+) and proportion of cancer involving the volume of the prostate. In the population of patients, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ independently associated with pGS 65 7 and pT3b; moreover, the odds ratio (OR) of the PSA/FT index ratio resulted 9.11 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.11) and P+ (OR = 8.84). In the PCA population, TT, PSA/FT index ratio and P+ also independently associated with pT3b PCA; interestingly, the OR of PSA/FT index resulted 54.91 which was stronger than TT (OR = 1.31) and P+ (26.43). Conclusions: Preoperative PSA/FT index ratio is an independent strong factor which directly associates with aggressive features of pathology PCA; moreover, it might express prognostic potential for clustering the patient population in risk classes. Confirmatory studies are required

    LC3B and ph-S6K are both expressed in epithelioid and classic renal angiomyolipoma: a rationale tissue-based evidence for combining use of autophagic and mTOR targeted drugs

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    Background: Targeted drugs to the autophagy processes are emerging in clinical trials. The aim of this work is to assess the magnitude of autophagic expression in renal angiomyolipoma. Methods: Fourteen cases of renal angiomyolipoma were recruited. Anti-LC3B-II and anti-phospho-S6K were detected by Western blot analysis. For immunohistochemical staining, sections were stained with the antibodies LC3B-II and cathepsin-K. LC3B-II was also analyzed by immunofluorescence. We have also carried out electron microscopy analysis on tumor cells. Results: 13 classic and 1 epithelioid renal angiomyolipoma were recruited. The Western-blot LC3B-II analysis shows increasing in protein expression in all cases, however quantitative protein expression ranged from 1 to 15 (mean 5). The autophagosome protein LC3B-I also significantly increased in all tumor extraction. The expression of LC3B-II protein was confirmed in tumoral samples by immunofluorescence. The lysosomal marker cathepsin-K was observed by immunohistochemistry on all tumours. The Western-blot ph-S6K analysis showed significant protein overexpression along all cases after evaluation of the quantitative S6K/Ponceaus ratio. In 6/14 (52%) the expression was high, with a quantitative increase of 653 fold induction in 4 angiomyolipoma compared to normal tissue. At electron microscopy, cancer cells evidenced round or oval electron-dense granules associated with membranes and granules with double membrane. Conclusion: Both autophagic LC3B-II and ph-S6K molecules are over-represented in both epithelioid and classic renal angiomyolipoma and a combined use of inhibitors to the autophagic and mTOR processes may be designed in clinical trials, when enrolling patients affected by tumours in tuberous sclerosis or angiomyolipoma at risk of bledding

    Pseudoepitheliomatous, keratotic, and micaceous balanitis mimicking lichen sclerosus et atrophicus

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    We present a man in his 70s with a hyperkeratotic whitish plaque over the internal prepuce and glans. The lesion was slowly growing for four years prior to presentation and was resistant to several topical treatments. The histological examination of the lesion revealed marked hyperkeratosis and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, supporting the diagnosis of pseudoepitheliomatous, keratotic, and micaceous balanitis. It is important to be aware of this uncommon but potentially malignant condition affecting elderly men

    Congenital granular cell epulis of newborn: importance of prenatal diagnosis

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    Congenital granular cell epulis is a rare benign lesion usually arising as single mass from the alveolar ridge of maxillary bone of female newborns, composed of polygonal granular cells that typically stain negative for S-100, in contrast to the adult counterpart. Larger lesions can disturb breathing and breast-feeding, requiring surgery. Prenatal diagnosis is achieved in few cases, even if this would be important for best management of delivery and therapy. Here we present a case of multiple CGCE in a female newborn discovered at birth, together with a brief review of pathogenesis, differential diagnoses and treatment implications of early diagnosis

    Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the urinary bladder expressing GATA 3

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    Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the urinary bladder are uncommon tumors represented by small-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and by fewer cases of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. Less than 30 examples of this latter entity have been published so far and consisted of clinically indolent lesions mainly located in the bladder neck arranged in a pseudo-glandular architecture often associated with reactive urothelial changes like cystitis cystica/glandularis. Due to their infrequency, pathologists may face difficulty to recognize this proliferation considering it as part of cystitis cystica/glandularis or misinterpreting it as nested urothelial carcinoma, paraganglioma, or secondary bladder involvement by prostatic adenocarcinoma. Herein the case of a 51-year-old female diagnosed with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the bladder immunohistochemically expressing GATA3 is reported, pointing out either the pitfall in the differential diagnosis with cystitis cystica/glandularis, nested urothelial carcinoma, and paraganglioma or its usefulness in the differential diagnosis with prostatic adenocarcinoma

    CD13 is a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of meningiomas with potential biological and prognostic implications

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    : Meningiomas are common tumors of the central nervous system. Although their histological diagnosis is usually straightforward, their differential diagnosis versus other tumors may be challenging at times. The objective of this study is to assess the diagnostic value of CD13 immunoexpression in the differential diagnosis between meningiomas and their morphological mimics. Immunohistochemical analysis for CD13, epithelial membrane antigen, SOX10, and STAT6 was carried out in a large cohort of primary meningeal tumors comprising 225 meningiomas, 15 schwannomas, and 20 solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytomas. Within the meningioma group, the expression of CD13 and epithelial membrane antigen was distinguished in three categories using a semiquantitative score. Most of meningiomas expressed CD13 (94%) and epithelial membrane antigen (96%) while none of the schwannomas nor of the solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytomas was positive for either the two markers. Diffuse positivity for CD13 and epithelial membrane antigen was more common in low-grade meningiomas than in anaplastic ones, which were also more often negative for such markers, especially for CD13 (32%). CD13 is a helpful immunohistochemical marker for the differential diagnosis of meningiomas and their mimics, achieving in combination with epithelial membrane antigen maximal sensitivity (100%) and showing statistically relevant difference of expression in comparison with both schwannomas (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.0001) and solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytomas (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.0001). Furthermore, loss of CD13 expression could be related to outcome as it is associated with worrisome histological findings, mainly in the setting of anaplastic meningiomas

    Recurrent oligodendroglioma with changed 1p/19q status

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    : We report a case of oligodendroglioma that had consistent histopathological features as well as a distinct change in 1p/19q status in the second recurrence, after temozolomide chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The first tumor recurrence had oligodendroglial morphology, IDH1 R132H and TERT promoter mutations, and 1p/19q codeletion detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Copy number analysis, assessed by next-generation sequencing, confirmed 1p/19q codeletion, and disclosed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosomes 4 and 9 and chromosome 11 gain. The second recurrence featured not only oligodendroglial morphology but also the appearance of admixed multinucleated giant cells or neoplastic cells having oval nuclei and mitoses and showing microvascular proliferation; it maintained IDH1 R132H and TERT promoter mutations, acquired TP53 mutation, and showed 19q LOH, but disomic 1p, detected by FISH. Copy number analysis depicted LOH of chromosomes 3p, 13, and 19q, 1p partial deletion (1p chr1p34.2-p11), and gain of chromosomes 2p25.3-p24.1, 8q12.2-q24.3, and 11q13.3-q25. B-allele frequency analysis of polymorphic sites disclosed copy-neutral LOH at 1p36.33-p34.2, supporting the initial deletion of 1p, followed by reduplication of 1p36.33-p34.2 alone. These findings suggest that the two tumor recurrences might have originated from an initial neoplastic clone, featuring 1p/19q codeletion and IDH1 and TERT promoter mutations, and have independently acquired other copy number alterations. The reduplication of chromosome 1p might be the result of temozolomide treatment, and gave rise to false negative 1p deletion detected by FISH. The possibility of 1p copy-neutral LOH should be considered in recurrent oligodendrogliomas with altered 1p/19q status detected by FISH
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