749 research outputs found

    Correlation functions and emission time sequence of light charged particles from projectile-like fragment source in E/A = 44 and 77 MeV 40Ar + 27Al collisions

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    Two-particle correlation functions, involving protons, deuterons, tritons, and alpha-particles, have been measured at very forward angles (0.7 deg < theta_lab < 7 deg), in order to study projectile-like fragment (PLF) emission in E/A = 44 and 77 MeV 40Ar + 27Al collisions. Peaks, originating from resonance decays, are larger at E/A = 44 than at 77 MeV. This reflects the larger relative importance of independently emitted light particles, as compared to two-particle decay from unstable fragments, at the higher beam energy. The time sequence of the light charged particles, emitted from the PLF, has been deduced from particle-velocity-gated correlation functions (discarding the contribution from resonance decays). Alpha-particles are found to have an average emission time shorter than protons but longer than tritons and deuterons.Comment: 18 pages, 5 figures, submitted to Nuclear Physics

    Analysis of charged particle emission sources and coalescence in E/A = 61 MeV 36^{36}Ar + 27^{27}Al, 112^{112}Sn and 124^{124}Sn collisions

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    Single-particle kinetic energy spectra and two-particle small angle correlations of protons (pp), deuterons (dd) and tritons (tt) have been measured simultaneously in 61A MeV 36^{36}Ar + 27^{27}Al, 112^{112}Sn and 124^{124}Sn collisions. Characteristics of the emission sources have been derived from a ``source identification plot'' (ő≤source\beta_{source}--ECME_{CM} plot), constructed from the single-particle invariant spectra, and compared to the complementary results from two-particle correlation functions. Furthermore, the source identification plot has been used to determine the conditions when the coalescence mechanism can be applied for composite particles. In our data, this is the case only for the Ar + Al reaction, where pp, dd and tt are found to originate from a common source of emission (from the overlap region between target and projectile). In this case, the coalescence model parameter, p~0\tilde{p}_0 -- the radius of the complex particle emission source in momentum space, has been analyzed.Comment: 20 pages, 5 figures, submitted to Nuclear Physics

    The Role of Phase Space in Complex Fragment Emission from Low to Intermediate Energies

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    The experimental emission probabilities of complex fragments by low energy compound nuclei and their dependence upon energy and atomic number are compared to the transition state rates. Intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for a variety of reactions at intermediate energies are shown to be binomial and thus reducible at all measured transverse energies. From these distributions a single binary event probability can be extracted which has a thermal dependence. A strong thermal signature is also found in the charge distributions. The n-fold charge distributions are reducible to the 1-fold charge distributions through a simple scaling dictated by fold number and charge conservation.Comment: 15 pages, TeX type, psfig, also available at http://csa5.lbl.gov/moretto/ps/brazil.ps, to appear in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Nuclear Dynamics at Long and Short Distances, April 8-12, 1996, Angra dos Reis, Brazi

    The complement: a solution to liquid drop finite size effects in phase transitions

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    The effects of the finite size of a liquid drop undergoing a phase transition are described in terms of the complement, the largest (but still mesoscopic) drop representing the liquid in equilibrium with the vapor. Vapor cluster concentrations, pressure and density from fixed mean density lattice gas (Ising) model calculations are explained in terms of the complement. Accounting for this finite size effect is key to determining the infinite nuclear matter phase diagram from experimental data.Comment: Four two column pages, four figures, two tables; accepted for publication in PR

    From upper limits to detection : continuous gravitational waves in the advanced detector era

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    This thesis concerns continuous gravitational wave signals from non-axisymmetric neutron stars and ground-based interferometric detectors. These detectors are currently being upgraded and this thesis explores relevant issues and methods to prepare for the advanced detector era. A study into sensitivity dependence on the addition of a southern hemisphere detector for a targeted continuous wave search is first presented. Next, we study the effect of close and/or high velocity neutron stars on the ability of a blind, all-sky search to make a detection. Initial results from a narrowband search for signals from the Crab Pulsar and a blind hardware injected signal are then presented. Finally, we describe the development and initial implementation of a large-scale mock data challenge designed to test current continuous wave algorithms to explore various issues before we enter the advanced detector era.EThOS - Electronic Theses Online ServiceGBUnited Kingdo

    Novel tau filament fold in chronic traumatic encephalopathy encloses hydrophobic molecules

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    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative tauopathy that is associated with repetitive head impacts or exposure to blast waves. First described as punch-drunk syndrome and dementia pugilistica in retired boxers1-3, CTE has since been identified in former participants of other contact sports, ex-military personnel and after physical abuse4-7. No disease-modifying therapies currently exist, and diagnosis requires an autopsy. CTE is defined by an abundance of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in neurons, astrocytes and cell processes around blood vessels8,9. This, together with the accumulation of tau inclusions in cortical layers II and III, distinguishes CTE from Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies10,11. However, the morphologies of tau filaments in CTE and the mechanisms by which brain trauma can lead to their formation are unknown. Here we determine the structures of tau filaments from the brains of three individuals with CTE at resolutions down to 2.3 √Ö, using cryo-electron microscopy. We show that filament structures are identical in the three cases but are distinct from those of Alzheimer's and Pick's diseases, and from those formed in vitro12-15. Similar to Alzheimer's disease12,14,16-18, all six brain tau isoforms assemble into filaments in CTE, and residues K274-R379 of three-repeat tau and S305-R379 of four-repeat tau form the ordered core of two identical C-shaped protofilaments. However, a different conformation of the ő≤-helix region creates a hydrophobic cavity that is absent in tau filaments from the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This cavity encloses an additional density that is not connected to tau, which suggests that the incorporation of cofactors may have a role in tau aggregation in CTE. Moreover, filaments in CTE have distinct protofilament interfaces to those of Alzheimer's disease. Our structures provide a unifying neuropathological criterion for CTE, and support the hypothesis that the formation and propagation of distinct conformers of assembled tau underlie different neurodegenerative diseases

    Quantum corrections for pion correlations involving resonance decays

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    A method is presented to include quantum corrections into the calculation of two-pion correlations for the case where particles originate from resonance decays. The technique uses classical information regarding the space-time points at which resonances are created. By evaluating a simple thermal model, the method is compared to semiclassical techniques that assume exponential decaying resonances moving along classical trajectories. Significant improvements are noted when the resonance widths are broad as compared to the temperature.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure

    Rapidly progressive atypical parkinsonism associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and motor neuron disease

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    Objective To report the rare but distinct clinical and neuropathological phenotype of non-familial, rapidly progressive parkinsonism and dementia associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND). Methods Subjects included two 70-year-old women presenting with rapidly progressive severe postural instability, axial-predominant parkinsonism, oculomotor dysfunction and frontal-predominant dementia with language impairment and pseudobulbar palsy. One had diffuse weakness without signs of lower motor neuron disease. Post-mortem evaluations included immunohistochemistry with antiphospho-TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and genetic analysis of the TARDBP and PGRN genes. Results Subjects died within 14 months from symptom onset. TDP-43-positive neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions were prominent in the primary motor cortex, granule cell layer of the hippocampus, and several cranial and spinal cord nuclei. TDP-43 globular glial inclusions (GGI) were identified in one case. There were no mutations in PGRN or TARDBP genes. Conclusions FTLD-MND due to TDP-43-proteinopathy should be considered in patients with rapidly progressive parkinsonism and dementia phenotype, especially when aphasia and/or weakness are also present

    Bank Vole Prion Protein As an Apparently Universal Substrate for RT-QuIC-Based Detection and Discrimination of Prion Strains

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    Prions propagate as multiple strains in a wide variety of mammalian species. The detection of all such strains by a single ultrasensitive assay such as Real Time Quaking-induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) would facilitate prion disease diagnosis, surveillance and research. Previous studies have shown that bank voles, and transgenic mice expressing bank vole prion protein, are susceptible to most, if not all, types of prions. Here we show that bacterially expressed recombinant bank vole prion protein (residues 23-230) is an effective substrate for the sensitive RT-QuIC detection of all of the different prion types that we have tested so far--a total of 28 from humans, cattle, sheep, cervids and rodents, including several that have previously been undetectable by RT-QuIC or Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification. Furthermore, comparison of the relative abilities of different prions to seed positive RT-QuIC reactions with bank vole and not other recombinant prion proteins allowed discrimination of prion strains such as classical and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy, classical and atypical Nor98 scrapie in sheep, and sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Comparison of protease-resistant RT-QuIC conversion products also aided strain discrimination and suggested the existence of several distinct classes of prion templates among the many strains tested
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