191 research outputs found

    Energy Consumption and Modeling of output energy with Multilayer Feed-Forward Neural Network for Corn Silage in Iran

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    In this study, various Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) were developed to estimate the output energy for corn silage production in Esfahan province, Iran. For this purpose, the data on 65 corn silage production farms in the Esfahan province, were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that total energy input for corn silage production was about 83126 MJ ha–1; machinery (with 38.8 %) and chemical fertilizer (with 24.5 %) were amongst the highest energy inputs for corn silage production. The developed ANN was a multilayer perceptron (MLP) with eight neurons in the input layer (human power, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizer, water for irrigation, seed, farm manure and pesticides ), one, two, three, four and five hidden layer(s) of various numbers of neurons and one neuron (output energy) in the output layer. The results of ANNs analyze showed that the (8-5-5-1)-MLP, namely, a network having five neurons in the first and second hidden layer was the best-suited model estimating the corn silage output energy. For this topology, MAB, MAE, RMSE and R2 were 0.109, 0.001, 0.0464 and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity analysis of input parameters on output showed that diesel fuel and seeds had the highest and lowest sensitivity on output energy with 0.0984 and 0.0386, respectively. The ANN approach appears to be a suitable method for modeling output energy, fuel consumption, CO2 emission, yield, and energy consumption based on social and technical parameters. This method would open new doors to advances in agriculture and modeling

    Ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis

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    Osteoporosis affects about 200 million people worldwide and is a silent disease until a fracture occurs. Management of osteoporosis is still a challenge that warrants further studies for establishing new prevention strategies and more effective treatment modalities. For this purpose, animal models of osteoporosis are appropriate tools, of which the ovariectomized rat model is the most commonly used. The aim of this study is to provide a 4-step guideline for inducing a rat model of osteoporosis by ovariectomy (OVX): (1) selection of the rat strain, (2) choosing the appropriate age of rats at the time of OVX, (3) selection of an appropriate surgical method and verification of OVX, and (4) evaluation of OVX-induced osteoporosis. This review of literature shows that (i) Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats are the most common strains used, both responding similarly to OVX; (ii) six months of age appears to be the best time for inducing OVX; (iii) dorsolateral skin incision is an appropriate choice for initiating OVX; and (iv) the success of OVX can be verified 1-3 weeks after surgery, following cessation of the regular estrus cycles, decreased estradiol, progesterone, and uterine weight as well as increased LH and FSH levels. Current data shows that the responses of trabecular bones of proximal tibia, lumbar vertebrae and femur to OVX are similar to those in humans; however, for short-term studies, proximal tibia is recommended. Osteoporosis in rats is verified by lower bone mineral density and lower trabecular number and thickness as well as higher trabecular separation, changes that are observed at 14, 30, and 60 days post-OVX in proximal tibia, lumbar vertebrae and femur, respectively

    Evaluation of antioxidant properties of button mushroom in different harvest and morphological stages

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    This study was conducted to test the impact of flush number, mushroom size and cap openness on phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus). Results showed that all tested facrors had a significant effect on dry matter and antioxidant properties of mushroom. The first flush had the highest dry matter in comparison with second and third flushs. Antioxiant activity and flavonoid content of mushrooms in second flush was significantly more than others but for phenol content, the first flush was the best. Surprisingly, the lowest antioxidant activity, phenol, and flavonoid contents were obseved in third flush. The highest antioxidant activity, phenol, and flavonoid content were recorded in large size, medium size, and small size of mushrooms, respectively. Cap of the mushroom showed significantly more antioxidant properties and flavanoid content, however, the phenol in stipe part was more than the cap part. Closed-cap mushrooms had significantly more dry matter and total phenol content, while no significant difference was seen in antioxidant activity and flavonoid compounds. In summary, mushrooms produced in third flush have lower dietary quality than first and second flushes, cap part of button mushroom was better than stipe and total antioxidant capacity was not affected by cap opening

    Evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction of workers exposed to styrene vapors in a plastic injection industry

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    زمینه و اهداف: استایرن از جمله مواد شیمیایی آلی فرار می‌باشد که مواجهه تنفسی با بخارات آن باعث ایجاد عوارض سلامتی مانند اختلالات تنفسی می‌شود. لذا هدف این مطالعه بررسی اختلال عملکرد ریوی کارگران یک صنعت تزریق پلاستیک با بخارات استایرن است. مواد و روش‌ها: مطالعه حاضر به‌صورت کوهورت-گذشته نگر، در یک صنعت تزریق پلاستیک انجام گرفت. پنجاه نفر از کارکنان خطوط تولید به‌ عنوان گروه مواجهه و 20 نفر از کارکنان اداری به‌ عنوان گروه مواجهه نیافته انتخاب شدند. ابتدا غلظت محیطی استایرن اندازه­گیری شد. سپس  پارامترهای ریوی کارکنان شامل حجم بازدمی اجباری در ثانیه اول (FEV1)، ظرفیت حیاتی اجباری و پرفشار (FVC)، کسر ظرفیت حیاتی خروجی در ثانیه اول بازدم (FEV1/FVC) و حداکثر جریان بازدمی (PEF) در دو نوبت "ابتدای نوبت‌کاری" و "بعد از خاتمه کار" بدست آمد.  علائم تنفسی این کارکنان با استفاده از پرسشنامه انجمن متخصصین قفسه صدری آمریکا (ATS)، بررسی شد. کلیه مفاد بیانیه هلسینکی در این مطالعه رعایت شد. یافته‌ها: نتایج به‌دست‌آمده اختلاف معناداری را در برخی از پارامترهای ظرفیت ریوی شاملFEV1 و FEV1/FVC در ابتدا و انتهای نوبت‌کاری نشان داد (05/0P <). علائم تنفسی شامل سرفه، سوزش بینی و گلو، گرفتگی صدا و خس‌خس سینه بین گروه مواجهه یافته نسبت به گروه مواجهه نیافته به‌صورت معناداری بیشتر بود (05/0P<). نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج نشان می‌دهد مواجهه با استایرن ارتباط معناداری با کاهش ظرفیت ریوی و بروز علائم تنفسی دارد.Background and Aims: As a volatile organic chemical, respiratory exposure to  styrene vapors causes health consequences including respiratory disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the pulmonary dysfunction of workers in a plastic injection industry polluted with styrene vapors.  Materials and Methods: The present study was a retrospective cohort in a plastic injection industry. Fifty production line employees were selected as the exposure group and 20 as the non-exposure control group. First, the environmental concentration of styrene was measured. Then the pulmonary parameters of the staff including the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), the forced and high-pressure vital capacity (FVC), the deduction of the critical output capacity in the first second of exhalation (FEV1 / FVC) and the maximum expiratory flow (PEF) at the “beginning of the shift” and "after completion" were obtained. Respiratory symptoms of these employees were assessed using a questionnaire of the American Chest Specialists Association (ATS). All the provisions of the Helsinki Declaration were observed in this study.  Results: The results showed significant differences in some pulmonary capacity parameters including FEV1 and FEV1 / FVC at the beginning and end of the work shift (p <0.05). Respiratory symptoms including cough, burning nose and throat, hoarseness and wheezing were significantly higher in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group (p <0.05).  Conclusion: The results showed that exposure to styrene is significantly associated with decreased pulmonary capacity and respiratory symptoms

    The Effects of Inorganic Nitrate on Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes: The Protocol of a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Background and Aim: Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in type 2 diabetes contributes to disrupted pathways of glucose/insulin homeostasis and progression of long-term complications. Due to its ability to convert to NO, inorganic nitrate (NO3) has been recently highlighted as a potential therapeutic agent in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This research entails a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II clinical trial that will be conducted on 62 type 2 diabetic patients. The patients will be randomized to receive a 6-month daily dose of NO3-rich beetroot powder (5 g/d, contains ~250 mg NO3) or placebo (5 g/d, contains <25 mg NO3). The primary outcome is glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The study is powered to detect a 0.75% reduction in HbA1c levels between the groups. Fasting serum glucose, serum insulin, lipid parameters, liver enzymes, thyroid function tests and complete blood count will be measured as secondary outcomes. The measurements will be done at baseline, and will be repeated in the fourth, twelfth and twenty-fourth weeks. Protocol of the study was approved by the ethical committee of the Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (IR.SBMU.ENDOCRINE.REC.1395.322). The trial was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with the following identification: IRCT20180409039246N1

    Diabetic Retinopathy and Laser Therapy in Rats: A Protein-Protein Interaction Network Analysis

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    Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious microvascular complication of diabetes which can cause vision loss or blindness ultimately. Non enzymatic glycation of proteins leads to advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in DR. Since laser therapy is a well-established method, in this study, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network is applied for protein targets in DR disease in rats treated by laser.Methods: In this study, we focused on articles that investigated and compared the proteome profiles of DR rats with healthy control and also DR rats before and after laser therapy. The networks of related differentially expressed proteins were explored using Cytoscape version 3.3.0, the PPI analysis methods and ClueGO.Results: Analysis of PPI network of 37 related proteins to DR rats including 108 nodes, introduced 10 hub-bottleneck proteins and 5 concerned biochemical pathways. On the other hand, PPI analysis of related proteins to DR rats before and after laser therapy corresponded to 33 proteins and 2 biological pathways.Discussion: Centrality and cluster screening identified hub-bottelneck genes, including Aldoa, HSPD1, Pgam2, Mapk3, SLC2A4, Ctnnb1, Ywhab, HSPA8, GAPDH and Actb for DR rats versus healthy control and ENO1, Aldoa, GAPDH for DR samples after laser therapy.Conclusion: Gene expression analysis of the DR samples treated via laser therapy provides a molecular evidence in support of the therapeutic effect of laser

    Evaluation of the effect of handheld mobile phone use on activity of the parotid glands amylase enzyme

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    Introduction: Alpha amylase is the most abundant enzyme of parotid gland. This enzyme starts digestion of carbohydrates in the mouth. A pair of parotid glands is located in front of ears. Several studies have been conducted on the effects of mobile phones on the parotid gland. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phones on the activity of the amylase enzyme. Materials &Methods: Totally, 251 men and women aged 18 to 55 years, who only used Hamrahe Aval's operator were included. Parotid salivary samples of each individual were bilaterally collected using capillary tube placed in the vicinity of Stensen's duct. Bilateral amylase activity of each individual was evaluated with spectrophotometric method in the laboratory considering dominant sides of phone conversation and chewing. Data were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA, χ2, T test and SPSS software. Results: The relationship between the dominant phone conversation side and parotid amylase activity was not statistically significant but the correlation between prevailing chewing side and amylase activity was statistically significant (p=0.001). Conclusion: Handheld mobile phone was not effective on parotid amylase enzyme activity whereas chewing was effective on parotid amylase enzyme activity
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