286 research outputs found

### A proposed study of multiple scattering through clouds up to 1 THz

A rigorous computation of the electromagnetic field scattered from an atmospheric liquid water cloud is proposed. The recent development of a fast recursive algorithm (Chew algorithm) for computing the fields scattered from numerous scatterers now makes a rigorous computation feasible. A method is presented for adapting this algorithm to a general case where there are an extremely large number of scatterers. It is also proposed to extend a new binary PAM channel coding technique (El-Khamy coding) to multiple levels with non-square pulse shapes. The Chew algorithm can be used to compute the transfer function of a cloud channel. Then the transfer function can be used to design an optimum El-Khamy code. In principle, these concepts can be applied directly to the realistic case of a time-varying cloud (adaptive channel coding and adaptive equalization). A brief review is included of some preliminary work on cloud dispersive effects on digital communication signals and on cloud liquid water spectra and correlations

### Nuclear import factors importin alpha and importin beta undergo mutually induced conformational changes upon association

A heterodimer of importin alpha and importin beta accomplishes the nuclear import of proteins carrying classical nuclear localization signals (NLS). The interaction between the two import factors is mediated by the IBB domain of importin alpha and involves an extended recognition surface as shown by X-ray crystallography. Using a combination of biochemical and biophysical techniques we have investigated the formation of the importin beta:IBB domain complex in solution. Our data suggest that upon binding to the IBB domain, importin beta adopts a compact, proteolytically resistant conformation, while simultaneously the IBB domain folds into an alpha helix. We suggest a model to describe how these dual mutually induced conformational changes may orchestrate the nuclear import of NLS cargo in vivo

### Effects of state dependent correlations on nucleon density and momentum distributions

The proton momentum and density distributions of closed shell nuclei are
calculated within a model treating short--range correlations up to first order
in the cluster expansion. The validity of the model is verified by comparing
the results obtained with purely scalar correlations with those produced by
finite nuclei Fermi Hypernetted Chain calculations. State dependent
correlations are used to calculate momentum and density distributions of 12C,
16O, 40Ca, and 48Ca, and the effects of their tensor components are studied.Comment: 16 pages, latex, 8 figures, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

### Single and coupled L3 photonic crystal cavities for cavity-QED experiments

Here we discuss the experimental characterization of the spatial far-field profiles for the confined modes in a photonic crystal cavity of the L3 type, finding a good agreement with FDTD simulations. We then link the far-field profiles to relevant features of the cavity mode near-fields, using a simple Fabry-Perot resonator model. Finally, we describe a technique for independent all-electrical control of the wavelength of quantum dots in separated L3 cavities, coupled by a waveguide, by electrical isolation via proton implantation

### Out-of-equilibrium physics in driven dissipative coupled resonator arrays

Coupled resonator arrays have been shown to exhibit interesting many- body
physics including Mott and Fractional Hall states of photons. One of the main
differences between these photonic quantum simulators and their cold atoms
coun- terparts is in the dissipative nature of their photonic excitations. The
natural equi- librium state is where there are no photons left in the cavity.
Pumping the system with external drives is therefore necessary to compensate
for the losses and realise non-trivial states. The external driving here can
easily be tuned to be incoherent, coherent or fully quantum, opening the road
for exploration of many body regimes beyond the reach of other approaches. In
this chapter, we review some of the physics arising in driven dissipative
coupled resonator arrays including photon fermionisa- tion, crystallisation, as
well as photonic quantum Hall physics out of equilibrium. We start by briefly
describing possible experimental candidates to realise coupled resonator arrays
along with the two theoretical models that capture their physics, the
Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard and Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonians. A brief review of the
analytical and sophisticated numerical methods required to tackle these systems
is included.Comment: Chapter that appeared in "Quantum Simulations with Photons and
Polaritons: Merging Quantum Optics with Condensed Matter Physics" edited by
D.G.Angelakis, Quantum Science and Technology Series, Springer 201

### Fabrication of Nanostructured GaAs/AlGaAs Waveguide for Low-Density Polariton Condensation from a Bound State in the Continuum

Exciton-polaritons are hybrid light-matter states that arise from strong
coupling between an exciton resonance and a photonic cavity mode. As bosonic
excitations, they can undergo a phase transition to a condensed state that can
emit coherent light without a population inversion. This aspect makes them good
candidates for thresholdless lasers, yet short exciton-polariton lifetime has
made it difficult to achieve condensation at very low power densities. In this
sense, long-lived symmetry-protected states are excellent candidates to
overcome the limitations that arise from the finite mirror reflectivity of
monolithic microcavities. In this work we use a photonic symmetry protected
bound state in the continuum coupled to an excitonic resonance to achieve
state-of-the-art polariton condensation threshold in GaAs/AlGaAs waveguide.
Most important, we show the influence of fabrication control and how surface
passivation via atomic layer deposition provides a way to reduce exciton
quenching at the grating sidewalls

### Pion interaction with the trinucleon up to the eta production threshold

Pion elastic, charge exchange scattering and induced eta production on the
trinucleon systems are investigated in a coupled-channels approach in momentum
space with Fadeev wave functions. The channel $\pi N \rightarrow \eta N$ is
included using an isobar model with S-, P-, and D-wave resonances. While the
coherent reactions like $^3$He($\pi,\pi)^3$He can be reasonably well reproduced
up to $T_{\pi}$=500 MeV, large discrepancies appear for the incoherent
processes, $^3$He($\pi^-,\pi^0)^3$H and $^3$He($\pi^-,\eta)^3$H at backward
angles and energies above $\Delta$-resonance. In the forward direction the
$(\pi,\eta)$ calculations underestimate the experimental measurements very
close to threshold but agreement with the data improves with increasing pion
energy. Predictions are made for the asymmetries of the various reactions on
polarized $^3$He.Comment: 40 pages, 12 figures (available from the authors), Mainz preprint
MKPH-T-92-1

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