16 research outputs found

    Genetic and Technological Characterisation of Vineyard-and Winery-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria

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    Vineyard-and winery-associated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from two major PDO regions in Greece, Peza and Nemea, were surveyed. LAB were isolated from grapes, fermenting musts, and winery tanks performing spontaneous malolactic fermentations (MLF). Higher population density and species richness were detected in Nemea than in Peza vineyards and on grapes than in fermenting musts. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus graminis were the most abundant LAB on grapes, while Lactobacillus plantarum dominated in fermenting musts from both regions. No particular structure of Lactobacillus plantarum populations according to the region of origin was observed, and strain distribution seems random. LAB species diversity in winery tanks differed significantly from that in vineyard samples, consisting principally of Oenococcus oeni. Different strains were analysed as per their enological characteristics and the ability to produce biogenic amines (BAs). Winery-associated species showed higher resistance to low pH, ethanol, SO 2 , and CuSO 4 than vineyard-associated isolates. The frequency of BA-producing strains was relatively low but not negligible, considering that certain winery-associated Lactobacillus hilgardii strains were able to produce BAs. Present results show the necessity of controlling the MLF by selected starters in order to avoid BA accumulation in wine

    Evaluation of Different Molecular Markers for Genotyping Non-<i>Saccharomyces</i> Wine Yeast Species

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    Wine quality is determined by the particular yeast strains prevailing at various stages of fermentation. Therefore, the ability to make an easy, fast, and unambiguous discrimination of yeasts at the strain level is of great importance. Here, the tandem repeat-tRNA (TRtRNA) method with the 5GAC or ISSR-MB primer sets and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with (GTG)3, R5, and RF2 oligonucleotides were tested on various non-Saccharomyces wine yeast species. The TRtRNA-PCR employing ISSR-MB showed the highest capacity in discriminating Lachancea thermotolerans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima isolates. RAPD with RF2 was the most efficient method in resolving Starmerella bacillaris isolates, although it produced few polymorphic bands. RAPD with R5 showed the highest capacity to discriminate among the Issatchenkia orientalis, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, and Pichia anomala isolates. RAPD with either R5 or RF2 exhibited the highest ability to discriminate among the Torulaspora delbrueckii isolates. RAPD with (GTG)3 was the most discriminating method for the H. uvarum isolates. Here we concluded that both TRtRNA-PCR and RAPD-PCR offer rapid means for typing non-Saccharomyces species. However, each method performs better for a given species when paired with a particular primer set. The present results can be useful in wine research for the fast fingerprinting of non-Saccharomyces yeasts

    Spatial and temporal expressions of two distinct oleate desaturases from olive (Olea europaea L.)

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    Two cDNAs, OeFAD2 and OeFAD6, encoding ω-6 fatty acid desaturases, the key enzymes for the conversion of oleic into linoleic acid, were isolated from olive. OeFAD2 contains a C-terminal ER retrieval motif, whereas OeFAD6 possess a putative N-terminal plastidial signal peptide. The deduced amino acid sequence of OeFAD2 showed higher similarities to other plant microsomal ω-6 desasurases than to OeFAD6 or plastidial orthologues, and vice versa. Southern analysis indicated that the OeFAD2 gene is represented by one or two copies and OeFAD6 by a single copy gene. Expression analysis by RT-PCR showed that both genes are expressed in all tissues of olive tree tested, but higher levels of mRNA accumulation were detected in reproductive organs and cells that proliferate rapidly or store lipids. The two genes exhibited distinct patterns of mRNA accumulation during olive drupe growth. OeFAD2 was constitutively expressed, with maximum transcript accumulation in mesocarps, whereas OeFAD6 was developmentally regulated in both endosperms and embryos. The expression patterns observed reflect the discrete roles of these genes in membrane synthesis for cell division, thylakoid development, and lipid storage or in the biosynthetic pathway for the production of signaling molecules that influence plant development or defense. © 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved

    Molecular Characterization and Enological Potential of A High Lactic Acid-Producing Lachancea thermotolerans Vineyard Strain

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    Lactic acid production is an important feature of the yeast Lachancea thermotolerans that has gained increasing interest in winemaking. In particular, in light of climate change, the biological acidification and ethanol reduction by the use of selected yeast strains may counteract the effect of global warming in wines. Here, the enological potential of a high lactate-producing L. thermotolerans strain (P-HO1) in mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae was examined. Among the different inoculation schemes evaluated, the most successful implantation of L. thermotolerans was accomplished by sequential inoculation of S. cerevisiae, i.e., at 1% vol. ethanol. P-HO1produced the highest levels of lactic acid ever recorded in mixed fermentations (10.4 g/L), increasing thereby the acidity and reducing ethanol by 1.6% vol. L. thermotolerans was also associated with increases in ethyl isobutyrate (strawberry aroma), free SO2, organoleptically perceived citric nuances and aftertaste. To start uncovering the molecular mechanisms of lactate biosynthesis in L. thermotolerans, the relative expressions of the three lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) paralogous genes, which encode the key enzyme for lactate biosynthesis, along with the alcohol dehydrogenase paralogs (ADHs) were determined. Present results point to the possible implication of LDH2, but not of other LDH or ADH genes, in the high production of lactic acid in certain strains at the expense of ethanol. Taken together, the important enological features of P-HO1 highlighted here, and potentially of other L. thermotolerans strains, indicate its great importance in modern winemaking, particularly in the light of the upcoming climate change and its consequences in the grape/wine system

    Grapevine Responses to Heat Stress and Global Warming

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    The potential effects of the forthcoming climate change include the rising of the average annual temperature and the accumulation of extreme weather events, like frequent and severe heatwaves, a phenomenon known as global warming. Temperature is an important environmental factor affecting almost all aspects of growth and development in plants. The grapevine (Vitis spp.) is quite sensitive to extreme temperatures. Over the current century, temperatures are projected to continue rising with negative impacts on viticulture. These consequences range from short-term effects on wine quality to long-term issues such as the suitability of certain varieties and the sustainability of viticulture in traditional wine regions. Many viticultural zones, particularly in Mediterranean climate regions, may not be suitable for growing winegrapes in the near future unless we develop heat-stress-adapted genotypes or identify and exploit stress-tolerant germplasm. Grapevines, like other plants, have developed strategies to maintain homeostasis and cope with high-temperature stress. These mechanisms include physiological adaptations and activation of signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks governing heat stress response and acquisition of thermotolerance. Here, we review the major impacts of global warming on grape phenology and viticulture and focus on the physiological and molecular responses of the grapevine to heat stress

    <i>Torulaspora delbrueckii</i> May Help Manage Total and Volatile Acidity of Santorini-Assyrtiko Wine in View of Global Warming

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    Non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeasts are gaining popularity in modern winemaking for improving wine quality. Climate change is one of the biggest challenges winegrowing now faces in warm regions. Here, Lachancea thermotolerans LtS1 and Torulaspora delbrueckii TdS6 combined with Saccharomyces cerevisiae ScS13 isolated from Assyrtiko grapes from Santorini island were evaluated in grape must fermentation with the aim to mitigate major consequences of temperature rise. Different inoculation protocols were evaluated, including simultaneous and sequential mixed-strain inoculations, displaying significant variation in the chemical and kinetic characteristics. Both LtS1 and TdS6 could raise the titratable acidity (TA). TdS6 also reduced the volatile acidity (VA) and was thus chosen for further evaluation in microvinifications and pilot-scale fermentations. Consistent with lab-scale trials, sequential inoculation exhibited the longest persistence of TdS6 resulting in minimum VA levels. Diethyl succinate, ethyl propanoate, and ethyl isobutyrate were significantly increased in sequential inoculations, although a decline in the net total ester content was observed. On the other hand, significantly higher levels of TA, succinic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic were associated with sequential inoculation. The overall performance of TdS6 coupled with a high compatibility with S. cerevisiae suggests its use in the fermentation of Santorini-Assyrtiko or other high sugar musts for the production of structured dry or sweet wines

    Biodiversity and Enological Potential of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts from Nemean Vineyards

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    Vineyards in Nemea, the most important viticultural zone in Greece, were surveyed for indigenous non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeasts of enological potential. NS populations were isolated from the final stage of alcoholic fermentation and identified by a range of molecular methods. The enological profiles of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, H. osmophila, Lachancea thermotolerans, Starmerella bacillaris and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains were evaluated. Significant interspecies variation was observed in fermentation kinetics. H. osmophila and T. delbrueckii showed the highest capacity for prompt initiation of fermentation, while S. bacillaris achieved a higher fermentation rate in the second half of the process. Significant differences were also observed in the chemical parameters of NS strains. S. bacillaris SbS42 and T. delbrueckii TdS45 were further evaluated in mixed-culture fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NS strains achieved lower population densities than S. cerevisiae. SbS42 exhibited a higher death rate than TdS45. The chemical profiles of different ferments were separated by principal component analysis (PCA). Both NS strains were associated with lower levels of ethanol, when compared to single S. cerevisiae inoculation. TdS45 increased the ethyl acetate levels, while SbS42 caused a different production pattern of higher alcohols. This is the first report to explore the enological potential of NS wine yeast populations from Nemea. Based on prominent enological traits identified, the selected S. bacillaris and T. delbrueckii strains may be further exploited as co-culture starters for improving the quality and enhancing the regional character of local wines

    Discrimination and genetic diversity among cultivated olives of Greece using RAPD markers

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    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to study the genetic diversity and to discriminate among 33 Greek olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. Three feral forms from Crete and five foreign cultivars recently introduced into Greece were also included. Nineteen primers were selected which produced 64 reproducible polymorphic bands in the 41 olive genotypes studied, with an average of 3.4 informative markers per primer. The RAPD markers resulted in 135 distinct electrophoretic patterns, with an average of 7.1 patterns per primer. Based on either unique or combined patterns, all genotypes could be identified. Genetic similarities between genotypes were estimated using the Dice similarity index and these indicated that a high degree of diversity exists within the Greek olive germplasm. Using the unweighted pair-group method (UPGMA) most cultivars were clustered into two main groups according to their fruit size or commercial use (table or olive oil). However, poor correlation was detected between clustering of cultivars and their principal area of cultivation. RAPD marker data were subjected to nonmetric multidimentional scaling (NMDS) which produced results similar to those of the UPGMA analysis. The results presented here contribute to a comprehensive understanding of cultivated Greek olive germplasm and provide information that could be important for cultural purposes and breeding programs