616 research outputs found

    Distributed Stochastic Market Clearing with High-Penetration Wind Power

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    Integrating renewable energy into the modern power grid requires risk-cognizant dispatch of resources to account for the stochastic availability of renewables. Toward this goal, day-ahead stochastic market clearing with high-penetration wind energy is pursued in this paper based on the DC optimal power flow (OPF). The objective is to minimize the social cost which consists of conventional generation costs, end-user disutility, as well as a risk measure of the system re-dispatching cost. Capitalizing on the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR), the novel model is able to mitigate the potentially high risk of the recourse actions to compensate wind forecast errors. The resulting convex optimization task is tackled via a distribution-free sample average based approximation to bypass the prohibitively complex high-dimensional integration. Furthermore, to cope with possibly large-scale dispatchable loads, a fast distributed solver is developed with guaranteed convergence using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Numerical results tested on a modified benchmark system are reported to corroborate the merits of the novel framework and proposed approaches.Comment: To appear in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems; 12 pages and 9 figure

    Robust PCA as Bilinear Decomposition with Outlier-Sparsity Regularization

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    Principal component analysis (PCA) is widely used for dimensionality reduction, with well-documented merits in various applications involving high-dimensional data, including computer vision, preference measurement, and bioinformatics. In this context, the fresh look advocated here permeates benefits from variable selection and compressive sampling, to robustify PCA against outliers. A least-trimmed squares estimator of a low-rank bilinear factor analysis model is shown closely related to that obtained from an β„“0\ell_0-(pseudo)norm-regularized criterion encouraging sparsity in a matrix explicitly modeling the outliers. This connection suggests robust PCA schemes based on convex relaxation, which lead naturally to a family of robust estimators encompassing Huber's optimal M-class as a special case. Outliers are identified by tuning a regularization parameter, which amounts to controlling sparsity of the outlier matrix along the whole robustification path of (group) least-absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) solutions. Beyond its neat ties to robust statistics, the developed outlier-aware PCA framework is versatile to accommodate novel and scalable algorithms to: i) track the low-rank signal subspace robustly, as new data are acquired in real time; and ii) determine principal components robustly in (possibly) infinite-dimensional feature spaces. Synthetic and real data tests corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed robust PCA schemes, when used to identify aberrant responses in personality assessment surveys, as well as unveil communities in social networks, and intruders from video surveillance data.Comment: 30 pages, submitted to IEEE Transactions on Signal Processin

    Distributed Recursive Least-Squares: Stability and Performance Analysis

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    The recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm has well-documented merits for reducing complexity and storage requirements, when it comes to online estimation of stationary signals as well as for tracking slowly-varying nonstationary processes. In this paper, a distributed recursive least-squares (D-RLS) algorithm is developed for cooperative estimation using ad hoc wireless sensor networks. Distributed iterations are obtained by minimizing a separable reformulation of the exponentially-weighted least-squares cost, using the alternating-minimization algorithm. Sensors carry out reduced-complexity tasks locally, and exchange messages with one-hop neighbors to consent on the network-wide estimates adaptively. A steady-state mean-square error (MSE) performance analysis of D-RLS is conducted, by studying a stochastically-driven `averaged' system that approximates the D-RLS dynamics asymptotically in time. For sensor observations that are linearly related to the time-invariant parameter vector sought, the simplifying independence setting assumptions facilitate deriving accurate closed-form expressions for the MSE steady-state values. The problems of mean- and MSE-sense stability of D-RLS are also investigated, and easily-checkable sufficient conditions are derived under which a steady-state is attained. Without resorting to diminishing step-sizes which compromise the tracking ability of D-RLS, stability ensures that per sensor estimates hover inside a ball of finite radius centered at the true parameter vector, with high-probability, even when inter-sensor communication links are noisy. Interestingly, computer simulations demonstrate that the theoretical findings are accurate also in the pragmatic settings whereby sensors acquire temporally-correlated data.Comment: 30 pages, 4 figures, submitted to IEEE Transactions on Signal Processin

    From Sparse Signals to Sparse Residuals for Robust Sensing

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    One of the key challenges in sensor networks is the extraction of information by fusing data from a multitude of distinct, but possibly unreliable sensors. Recovering information from the maximum number of dependable sensors while specifying the unreliable ones is critical for robust sensing. This sensing task is formulated here as that of finding the maximum number of feasible subsystems of linear equations, and proved to be NP-hard. Useful links are established with compressive sampling, which aims at recovering vectors that are sparse. In contrast, the signals here are not sparse, but give rise to sparse residuals. Capitalizing on this form of sparsity, four sensing schemes with complementary strengths are developed. The first scheme is a convex relaxation of the original problem expressed as a second-order cone program (SOCP). It is shown that when the involved sensing matrices are Gaussian and the reliable measurements are sufficiently many, the SOCP can recover the optimal solution with overwhelming probability. The second scheme is obtained by replacing the initial objective function with a concave one. The third and fourth schemes are tailored for noisy sensor data. The noisy case is cast as a combinatorial problem that is subsequently surrogated by a (weighted) SOCP. Interestingly, the derived cost functions fall into the framework of robust multivariate linear regression, while an efficient block-coordinate descent algorithm is developed for their minimization. The robust sensing capabilities of all schemes are verified by simulated tests.Comment: Under review for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (revised version
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