62 research outputs found

    Imaging Findings of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Aβ-Related Angiitis (ABRA), and Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Inflammation: A Single-Institution 25-Year Experience

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    Vascular inflammation is present in a subset of patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and has a major influence in determining the disease manifestations. Radiological characterization of this subset is particularly important to achieve early recognition and treatment. We conducted this study to investigate the role of imaging in differentiating CAA with and without inflammation. We reviewed neuroimaging findings for 54 patients seen at Mayo Clinic over 25 years with pathological evidence of CAA and with available neuroimaging at the time of diagnosis. Clinical data were also recorded. Patients were grouped into CAA alone (no vascular inflammation), Aβ-related angiitis or ABRA (angiodestructive inflammation), and CAA-related inflammation or CAA-RI (perivascular inflammation). Imaging findings at presentation were compared among patient subgroups. Radiological features supporting a diagnosis of ABRA or CAA-RI were identified. Radiologic findings at diagnosis were available in 27 patients with CAA without inflammation, 22 with ABRA, and 5 with CAA-RI. On MRI, leptomeningeal disease alone or with infiltrative white matter was significantly more frequent at presentation in patients with ABRA or CAA-RI compared with those with CAA (29.6% vs. 3.7%, P = 0.02; and 40.7% vs. 3.7%, P = 0.002, respectively), whereas lobar hemorrhage was more frequent in patients with CAA (62.3% vs. 7.4%, P = 0.0001). Overall, leptomeningeal involvement at presentation was present in 70.4% of patients with ABRA or CAA-RI and in only 7.4% of patients with CAA (P = 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of leptomeningeal enhancement to identify patients with ABRA or CAA-RI were 70.4% and 92.6%, respectively, whereas the positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 9.5. The sensitivity and specificity of intracerebral hemorrhage to identify patients with CAA were 62.9% and 92.6%, respectively, whereas the positive LR was 8.5. Microbleeds were found in 70.4% of patients with inflammatory CAA at presentation. In conclusion, leptomeningeal enhancement and lobar hemorrhage at presentation may enable differentiation between CAA with and without inflammation. The identification at initial MRI of diffuse cortical-subcortical microbleeds in elderly patients presenting with infiltrative white matter process or prominent leptomeningeal enhancement is highly suggestive of vascular inflammatory CAA

    Vasculitis of the gastrointestinal tract in chronic periaortitis

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    The term "chronic periaortitis" (CP), proposed by Mitchinson in 1984, comprises 3 main entities: idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (IRF), inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAAs), and perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis (PRF).The presence of constitutional symptoms, high acute-phase reactants, positive autoantibodies, and associated autoimmune diseases suggests a systemic inflammatory process. Histopathologic findings show vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis involving the aortic vasa vasorum as well as the small and medium retroperitoneal vessels.We reviewed the medical records of 608 patients with a diagnosis of vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract at the Mayo Clinic between January 1996 and December 2007. Only patients with biopsy-proven or typical angiographic findings of vasculitis localized to the GI tract were included.Five patients were identified with evidence of CP (1 patient with PRF, 1 with IRF, and 3 with IAAAs). Three patients were men, and the median age at diagnosis was 49 years. The diagnosis of GI vasculitis and CP was made simultaneously in 4 patients. At the time of onset, all patients had abdominal pain and constitutional manifestations; the median erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 62.5 mm/1 h (range, 20-86 mm/1 h). All patients had evidence of mesenteric vasculitis at angiography. Three patients also had associated renal artery stenoses. Abdominal computed tomography showed spleen infarcts in 2 patients, bowel wall thickening in 1, and liver infarction in 1. Two patients underwent surgical intervention for acute abdomen; there was histologic evidence of small bowel infarcts and infarction of the spleen and liver in 1. Oral prednisone was administered to all 5 patients (median starting dose, 60 mg/d; range, 25-80 mg/d). Three patients also received immunosuppressive agents, 1 tamoxifen, and 1 anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. All patients had at least 1 relapse or recurrence of vasculitis, but at last visit, GI vasculitis and CP were in remission in all 5 patients.This study provides evidence that GI manifestations due to mesenteric vasculitis may be associated with CP. Vasculitic involvement of the renal arteries is also frequently present in these patients. Aggressive immunosuppressive treatment should be promptly initiated to forestall abdominal complications. These findings reinforce the hypothesis that a vasculitic process plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CP

    Increased risk of peripheral arterial disease in polymyalgia rheumatica: a population-based cohort study

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    INTRODUCTION: The present study was conducted to determine whether patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are at an increased risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). METHODS: An inception cohort of all Olmsted County, Minnesota residents diagnosed with PMR between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1999 was compared with non-PMR subjects (two for each PMR subject) from among residents. Both cohorts were followed longitudinally by complete medical record review from the incidence date of PMR (or index date for the non-PMR cohort) until death, incident PAD, migration, or 31 December 2006. PMR-related disease characteristics, traditional cardiovascular risk factors and diagnosis of PAD were abstracted from the medical record. Cumulative incidence of PAD was estimated using Kaplan–Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the risk of PAD in PMR compared with non-PMR. RESULTS: A total of 353 PMR patients (mean age 73.3 years, 67% women) and 705 non-PMR subjects (mean age 73.2 years, 68% female) were followed for a median of 11.0 years. PAD developed in 38 patients (10-year cumulative incidence, 8.5%) with PMR and in 28 non-PMR subjects (10-year cumulative incidence, 4.1%) (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), 2.40 (1.47, 3.92)). After adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, patients with PMR still had a significantly higher risk for PAD (hazard ratio, 2.50 (1.53, 4.08)) compared with controls. Giant cell arteritis occurred in 63 (18%) PMR patients but was not predictive of PAD (P = 0.15). There was no difference between mortality in PMR and the non-PMR cohorts nor in PMR patients with and those without PAD (P = 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PMR appear to have an increased risk of PAD

    Angiography-negative primary central nervous system vasculitis: a syndrome involving small cerebral vessels

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    Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) is a rare and poorly understood syndrome. We describe the clinical findings in 8 patients who appear to have a distinct subset of PCNSV. We identified 101 consecutive patients with PCNSV who were seen between January 1, 1983, and December 31, 2003. The diagnosis was based on conventional angiography in 70 patients and on central nervous system biopsy in 31 patients. Six of the 31 patients also had angiograms showing changes of vasculitis. Thus, 76 patients of the cohort had abnormal angiograms. Eight of the 101 patients had normal angiograms ("angiography-negative") but had brain biopsies that showed vasculitis. We compared the clinical and laboratory findings and outcomes of the 8 patients with angiography-negative PCNSV with those of the 76 patients with PCNSV whose angiograms showed evidence of vasculitis ("angiography-positive"). In comparison with the 76 patients with angiography-positive PCNSV, the 8 patients with angiography-negative PCNSV more commonly had 1) a cognitive disorder (87.5% vs. 43.4%; p =.024); 2) cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities (a protein level >or=700 mg/L or a white blood cell count >or=10 x 10(6)/L) (100% vs. 35.5%; p =.034); and 3) meningeal or parenchymal enhancing lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (75.0% vs. 23.9%; p =.007). Other differences between the 2 groups were observed but were not significantly different. All patients with angiography-negative PCNSV responded to treatment and none died. Angiography-negative PCNSV appears to be a distinct subtype of cerebral vasculitis with small vessel involvement beyond the resolution of conventional angiography and is associated with a favorable outcome

    Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States: Part II

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    To provide a single source for the best available estimates of the US prevalence of and number of individuals affected by osteoarthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis, gout, fibromyalgia, and carpal tunnel syndrome, as well as the symptoms of neck and back pain. A companion article (part I) addresses additional conditions

    Tumor necrosis factor blocking agents in polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis

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    Letter to the editor on the efficacy of Tumor Necrosis Factor–Blocking Agents in Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteriti
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