10,591 research outputs found

    Anomalous Strength Characteristics of Tilt Grain Boundaries in Graphene

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    Using molecular dynamics simulations and first principles calculations, we have studied the structure and mechanical strength of tilt grain boundaries in graphene sheets that arise during CVD growth of graphene on metal substrates. Surprisingly, we find that for tilt boundaries in the vicinity of both the zig-zag and arm-chair orientations, large angle boundaries with a higher density of 5-7 defect pairs are stronger than the low-angle boundaries which are comprised of fewer defects per unit length. Interestingly, the trends in our results cannot be explained by a continuum Griffith-type fracture mechanics criterion, which predicts the opposite trend due to that fact that it does not account for the critical bonds that are responsible for the failure mechanism. We have identified the highly-strained bonds in the 7-member rings that lead to the failure of the sheets, and we have found that large angle boundaries are able to better accommodate the strained 7-rings. Our results provide guidelines for designing growth methods to obtain grain boundary structures that can have strengths close to that of pristine graphene

    Variational method to study vortex matter in mesoscopic superconductors

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    A simple variational model is proposed to analyze the superconducting state in long cylindrical type-II superconductor placed in the external magnetic field. In the framework of this model, it is possible to solve the Ginzburg-Landau equations for the states with axially symmetric distributions of the order parameter. Phase transitions between different superconducting states are studied in the presence of external magnetic field and an equilibrium phase diagram of thin cylinder is obtained. The lower critical field of the cylindrical type-II superconductor with arbitrary values of radius and Ginzburg-Landau parameter is found. The field dependence of the magnetization of thin cylinder, which can carry several magnetic flux quanta, is calculated.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figures, submitted to Physica

    Non-local transport and the hydrodynamic shear viscosity in graphene

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    Motivated by recent experimental progress in preparing encapsulated graphene sheets with ultra-high mobilities up to room temperature, we present a theoretical study of dc transport in doped graphene in the hydrodynamic regime. By using the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations, we demonstrate analytically that measurements of non-local resistances in multi-terminal Hall bar devices can be used to extract the hydrodynamic shear viscosity of the two-dimensional (2D) electron liquid in graphene. We also discuss how to probe the viscosity-dominated hydrodynamic transport regime by scanning probe potentiometry and magnetometry. Our approach enables measurements of the viscosity of any 2D electron liquid in the hydrodynamic transport regime.Comment: 12 pages, 4 multi-panel figure

    Failure of conductance quantization in two-dimensional topological insulators due to non-magnetic impurities

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    Despite topological protection and the absence of magnetic impurities, two-dimensional topological insulators display quantized conductance only in surprisingly short channels, which can be as short as 100 nm for atomically thin materials. We show that the combined action of short-range nonmagnetic impurities located near the edges and on site electron-electron interactions effectively creates noncollinear magnetic scatterers, and, hence, results in strong backscattering. The mechanism causes deviations from quantization even at zero temperature and for a modest strength of electron-electron interactions. Our theory provides a straightforward conceptual framework to explain experimental results, especially those in atomically thin crystals, plagued with short-range edge disorder.Comment: 8 pages, 9 figures, 5 appendice

    Magnetoresistance of a 2-dimensional electron gas in a random magnetic field

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    We report magnetoresistance measurements on a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) made from a high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure, where the externally applied magnetic field was expelled from regions of the semiconductor by means of superconducting lead grains randomly distributed on the surface of the sample. A theoretical explanation in excellent agreement with the experiment is given within the framework of the semiclassical Boltzmann equation.Comment: REVTEX 3.0, 11 pages, 3 Postscript figures appended. The manuscript can also be obtained from our World Wide Web server: http://roemer.fys.ku.dk/randmag.ht

    Novel A-B type oscillations in a 2-D electron gas in inhomogenous magnetic fields

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    We present results from a quantum and semiclassical theoretical study of the ρxy\rho_{xy} and ρxx\rho_{xx} resistivities of a high mobility 2-D electron gas in the presence of a dilute random distribution of tubes with magnetic flux Φ\Phi and radius RR, for arbitrary values of kfRk_f R and F=eΦ/hF=e\Phi/h. We report on novel Aharonov-Bohm type oscillations in ρxy\rho_{xy} and ρxx\rho_{xx}, related to degenerate quantum flux tube resonances, that satisfy the selection rule (kfR)2=4F(n+12){(k_fR)}^2=4F(n+{1\over 2}), with nn an integer. We discuss possible experimental conditions where these oscillations may be observed.Comment: 11 pages REVTE

    Enabling single-mode behavior over large areas with photonic Dirac cones

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    Many of graphene's unique electronic properties emerge from its Dirac-like electronic energy spectrum. Similarly, it is expected that a nanophotonic system featuring Dirac dispersion will open a path to a number of important research avenues. To date, however, all proposed realizations of a photonic analog of graphene lack fully omnidirectional out-of-plane light confinement, which has prevented creating truly realistic implementations of this class of systems. Here we report on a novel route to achieve all-dielectric three-dimensional photonic materials featuring Dirac-like dispersion in a quasi-two-dimensional system. We further discuss how this finding could enable a dramatic enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the \beta-factor) over large areas, defying the common wisdom that the \beta-factor degrades rapidly as the size of the system increases. These results might enable general new classes of large-area ultralow-threshold lasers, single-photon sources, quantum information processing devices and energy harvesting systems

    Nonlinear behavior of vibrating molecules on suspended graphene waveguides

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    Suspended graphene waveguides were deposited on micron-scale periodic metal (plasmonic) structures. Raman scattering of test molecules (B. Megaterium), deposited on the waveguides' surface, exhibited azimuthal cycles upon rotation: at these micron scales, spontaneous Raman ought to be independent of phase matching conditions. In addition, we observed angular-selective quadratic intensity dependence contrary to the typical linear behavior of spontaneous Raman. The effects were observed at very modest pump laser intensities (<10 MW/cm2 at the sample surface, oftenly used in Raman experiments). We attributed these observations to nonlinear coupling between the vibrating molecules and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes at the molecular vibration frequency. It was assessed that the polariton mode propagates through fairly long distances (over 100 microns).Comment: 18 pages; 3 figures; a journal pape

    Flux Confinement in Mesoscopic Superconductors

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    We report on flux confinement effects in superconducting submicron line, loop and dot structures. The main idea of our study was to vary the boundary conditions for confinement of the superconducting condensate by taking samples of different topology and, through that, modifying the lowest Landau level E_{LLL}(H). Since the critical temperature versus applied magnetic field T_{c}(H) is, in fact, E_{LLL}(H) measured in temperature units, it is varied as well when the sample topology is changed. We demonstrate that in all studied submicron structures the shape of the T_{c}(H) phase boundary is determined by the confinement topology in a unique way.Comment: 10 pages, 5 EPS figures, uses LaTeX's sup.sty, contribution to a special issue of "Superlattices and Microstructures
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