48 research outputs found

### Point Line Cover: The Easy Kernel is Essentially Tight

The input to the NP-hard Point Line Cover problem (PLC) consists of a set $P$
of $n$ points on the plane and a positive integer $k$, and the question is
whether there exists a set of at most $k$ lines which pass through all points
in $P$. A simple polynomial-time reduction reduces any input to one with at
most $k^2$ points. We show that this is essentially tight under standard
assumptions. More precisely, unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses to its
third level, there is no polynomial-time algorithm that reduces every instance
$(P,k)$ of PLC to an equivalent instance with $O(k^{2-\epsilon})$ points, for
any $\epsilon>0$. This answers, in the negative, an open problem posed by
Lokshtanov (PhD Thesis, 2009).
Our proof uses the machinery for deriving lower bounds on the size of kernels
developed by Dell and van Melkebeek (STOC 2010). It has two main ingredients:
We first show, by reduction from Vertex Cover, that PLC---conditionally---has
no kernel of total size $O(k^{2-\epsilon})$ bits. This does not directly imply
the claimed lower bound on the number of points, since the best known
polynomial-time encoding of a PLC instance with $n$ points requires
$\omega(n^{2})$ bits. To get around this we build on work of Goodman et al.
(STOC 1989) and devise an oracle communication protocol of cost $O(n\log n)$
for PLC; its main building block is a bound of $O(n^{O(n)})$ for the order
types of $n$ points that are not necessarily in general position, and an
explicit algorithm that enumerates all possible order types of n points. This
protocol and the lower bound on total size together yield the stated lower
bound on the number of points.
While a number of essentially tight polynomial lower bounds on total sizes of
kernels are known, our result is---to the best of our knowledge---the first to
show a nontrivial lower bound for structural/secondary parameters

### Finding Even Subgraphs Even Faster

Problems of the following kind have been the focus of much recent research in
the realm of parameterized complexity: Given an input graph (digraph) on $n$
vertices and a positive integer parameter $k$, find if there exist $k$ edges
(arcs) whose deletion results in a graph that satisfies some specified parity
constraints. In particular, when the objective is to obtain a connected graph
in which all the vertices have even degrees---where the resulting graph is
\emph{Eulerian}---the problem is called Undirected Eulerian Edge Deletion. The
corresponding problem in digraphs where the resulting graph should be strongly
connected and every vertex should have the same in-degree as its out-degree is
called Directed Eulerian Edge Deletion. Cygan et al. [\emph{Algorithmica,
2014}] showed that these problems are fixed parameter tractable (FPT), and gave
algorithms with the running time $2^{O(k \log k)}n^{O(1)}$. They also asked, as
an open problem, whether there exist FPT algorithms which solve these problems
in time $2^{O(k)}n^{O(1)}$. In this paper we answer their question in the
affirmative: using the technique of computing \emph{representative families of
co-graphic matroids} we design algorithms which solve these problems in time
$2^{O(k)}n^{O(1)}$. The crucial insight we bring to these problems is to view
the solution as an independent set of a co-graphic matroid. We believe that
this view-point/approach will be useful in other problems where one of the
constraints that need to be satisfied is that of connectivity

### Hitting forbidden minors: Approximation and Kernelization

We study a general class of problems called F-deletion problems. In an
F-deletion problem, we are asked whether a subset of at most $k$ vertices can
be deleted from a graph $G$ such that the resulting graph does not contain as a
minor any graph from the family F of forbidden minors.
We obtain a number of algorithmic results on the F-deletion problem when F
contains a planar graph. We give (1) a linear vertex kernel on graphs excluding
$t$-claw $K_{1,t}$, the star with $t$ leves, as an induced subgraph, where $t$
is a fixed integer. (2) an approximation algorithm achieving an approximation
ratio of $O(\log^{3/2} OPT)$, where $OPT$ is the size of an optimal solution on
general undirected graphs. Finally, we obtain polynomial kernels for the case
when F contains graph $\theta_c$ as a minor for a fixed integer $c$. The graph
$\theta_c$ consists of two vertices connected by $c$ parallel edges. Even
though this may appear to be a very restricted class of problems it already
encompasses well-studied problems such as {\sc Vertex Cover}, {\sc Feedback
Vertex Set} and Diamond Hitting Set. The generic kernelization algorithm is
based on a non-trivial application of protrusion techniques, previously used
only for problems on topological graph classes

### Minimum Fill-in of Sparse Graphs: Kernelization and Approximation

The Minimum Fill-in problem is to decide if a graph can be triangulated by adding at most k edges. The problem has important applications in numerical algebra, in particular in sparse matrix computations. We develop kernelization algorithms for the problem on several classes of sparse graphs. We obtain linear kernels on planar graphs, and kernels of size O(k^{3/2}) in graphs excluding some fixed graph as a minor and in graphs of bounded degeneracy. As a byproduct of our results, we obtain approximation algorithms with approximation ratios O(log{k}) on planar graphs and O(sqrt{k} log{k}) on H-minor-free graphs. These results significantly improve the previously known kernelization and approximation results for Minimum Fill-in on sparse graphs.publishedVersio

### Structural Parameterizations of Clique Coloring

A clique coloring of a graph is an assignment of colors to its vertices such that no maximal clique is monochromatic. We initiate the study of structural parameterizations of the Clique Coloring problem which asks whether a given graph has a clique coloring with q colors. For fixed q ? 2, we give an ?^?(q^{tw})-time algorithm when the input graph is given together with one of its tree decompositions of width tw. We complement this result with a matching lower bound under the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis. We furthermore show that (when the number of colors is unbounded) Clique Coloring is XP parameterized by clique-width