57 research outputs found

    Involvement of NADH Oxidase in Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus sanguinis

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    Biofilms play important roles in microbial communities and are related to infectious diseases. Here, we report direct evidence that a bacterial nox gene encoding NADH oxidase is involved in biofilm formation. A dramatic reduction in biofilm formation was observed in a Streptococcus sanguinis nox mutant under anaerobic conditions without any decrease in growth. The membrane fluidity of the mutant bacterial cells was found to be decreased and the fatty acid composition altered, with increased palmitic acid and decreased stearic acid and vaccenic acid. Extracellular DNA of the mutant was reduced in abundance and bacterial competence was suppressed. Gene expression analysis in the mutant identified two genes with altered expression, gtfP and Idh, which were found to be related to biofilm formation through examination of their deletion mutants. NADH oxidase-related metabolic pathways were analyzed, further clarifying the function of this enzyme in biofilm formation

    Identification of Small-Molecule Inhibitors against Meso-2, 6-Diaminopimelate Dehydrogenase from Porphyromonas gingivalis

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    Species-specific antimicrobial therapy has the potential to combat the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance and alteration of the human microbiome. We therefore set out to demonstrate the beginning of a pathogen-selective drug discovery method using the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis as a model. Through our knowledge of metabolic networks and essential genes we identified a “druggable” essential target, meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase, which is found in a limited number of species. We adopted a high-throughput virtual screen method on the ZINC chemical library to select a group of potential small-molecule inhibitors. Meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase from P. gingivaliswas first expressed and purified in Escherichia coli then characterized for enzymatic inhibitor screening studies. Several inhibitors with similar structural scaffolds containing a sulfonamide core and aromatic substituents showed dose-dependent inhibition. These compounds were further assayed showing reasonable whole-cell activity and the inhibition mechanism was determined. We conclude that the establishment of this target and screening strategy provides a model for the future development of new antimicrobials

    Model Reference Adaptive Control of Vehicle Slip Ratio Based on Speed Tracking

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    This paper investigates a slip ratio control problem of a vehicle braking system in which real-time road conditions are unavailable. To overcome the nonlinearity and uncertainties, the slip ratio control problem is converted to a speed tracking control problem. By introducing a road-condition observer, a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) method is proposed to overcome modeling errors and system uncertainties. The road condition observer based on the Lyapunov theory is designed and a sliding mode observer is also constructed to estimate the unknown vehicle velocity. The asymptotic and robustness property of the adaptive controller is derived by the Popov hyperstability theory. Simulations under different conditions including different road adhesion coefficient, system uncertainties and modeling errors are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method

    Pooled Protein Immunization for Identification of Cell Surface Antigens in Streptococcus sanguinis

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    Background: Available bacterial genomes provide opportunities for screening vaccines by reverse vaccinology. Efficient identification of surface antigens is required to reduce time and animal cost in this technology. We developed an approach to identify surface antigens rapidly in Streptococcus sanguinis, a common infective endocarditis causative species. Methods and Findings: We applied bioinformatics for antigen prediction and pooled antigens for immunization. Fortyseven surface-exposed proteins including 28 lipoproteins and 19 cell wall-anchored proteins were chosen based on computer algorithms and comparative genomic analyses. Eight proteins among these candidates and 2 other proteins were pooled together to immunize rabbits. The antiserum reacted strongly with each protein and with S. sanguinis whole cells. Affinity chromatography was used to purify the antibodies to 9 of the antigen pool components. Competitive ELISA and FACS results indicated that these 9 proteins were exposed on S. sanguinis cell surfaces. The purified antibodies had demonstrable opsonic activity. Conclusions: The results indicate that immunization with pooled proteins, in combination with affinity purification, an

    Contribution of Lipoproteins and Lipoprotein Processing to Endocarditis Virulence in Streptococcus sanguinis▿ §

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    Streptococcus sanguinis is an important cause of infective endocarditis. Previous studies have identified lipoproteins as virulence determinants in other streptococcal species. Using a bioinformatic approach, we identified 52 putative lipoprotein genes in S. sanguinis strain SK36 as well as genes encoding the lipoprotein-processing enzymes prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (lgt) and signal peptidase II (lspA). We employed a directed signature-tagged mutagenesis approach to systematically disrupt these genes and screen each mutant for the loss of virulence in an animal model of endocarditis. All mutants were viable. In competitive index assays, mutation of a putative phosphate transporter reduced in vivo competitiveness by 14-fold but also reduced in vitro viability by more than 20-fold. Mutations in lgt, lspA, or an uncharacterized lipoprotein gene reduced competitiveness by two- to threefold in the animal model and in broth culture. Mutation of ssaB, encoding a putative metal transporter, produced a similar effect in culture but reduced in vivo competiveness by >1,000-fold. [3H]palmitate labeling and Western blot analysis confirmed that the lgt mutant failed to acylate lipoproteins, that the lspA mutant had a general defect in lipoprotein cleavage, and that SsaB was processed differently in both mutants. These results indicate that the loss of a single lipoprotein, SsaB, dramatically reduces endocarditis virulence, whereas the loss of most other lipoproteins or of normal lipoprotein processing has no more than a minor effect on virulence