71 research outputs found

    Tramadol versus placebo for labor analgesia in low risk women: a randomized controlled trial

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    Background: In low- and middle-income countries epidural analgesia is generally not available and practically no form of labor analgesia is given to the majority of the parturient. The purpose of study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of tramadol as a labor analgesic during first stage of labor.Methods: Pregnant women admitted in the labor room satisfying the eligibility criteria were randomized to receive intramuscular injection of either 100 mg tramadol or 2 ml distilled water. Visual analogue score (VAS) was assessed at the beginning and every hour till 4 hours. Pain satisfaction, duration of second stage of labor, fetal heart rate, mode of delivery, and any maternal side effects of the study drug were recorded. Neonatal evaluation using Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes was done. For statistical analysis Student t-test, Chi Square test and Fisher’s exact test were used.Results: Total of 86 women were included in the study. The VAS scores were significantly lower in the tramadol group at 1, 2 and 3 hours after the administration. Pain relief satisfaction was significantly higher in the tramadol group. Rate of cervical dilatation, duration of the second and the third stage, need for instrumental delivery or lower segment caesarean section, rate of fetal distress and Apgar score at one and five minutes were comparable in both the groups. Nausea was significantly higher in tramadol group.Conclusions: Tramadol is a safe and efficacious drug which is inexpensive, easily available and easy to administer with few minor side effects. It can be used as a labour analgesic as an alternative to epidural analgesia in settings where epidural analgesia is not available. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov PRS registration number: NCT02999594.

    Sirenomelia: a case report with literature review

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    We are presenting a case of Sirenomelia (Mermaid Syndrome), which is an extreme example of the caudal regression syndrome. It invariably presents with lower limb fusion, sacral and pelvic bony anomalies, absent external genitalia, imperforate anus, and renal agenesis or dysgenesis. There are approximately 300 cases reported in the literature, 15% of which are associated with twinning, most often monozygotic. The syndrome of caudal regression is thought to be the result of injury to the caudal mesoderm early in gestation. The case encountered was a stillborn baby

    Antibiotic prophylaxis in cesarean sections: a tertiary care hospital based survey

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    Background: The objective of the study was to study the pattern of prophylactic antibiotics usage in caesarean sections in Indian settings.Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was done on women undergoing elective and emergency caesarean sections in the Department of obstetrics and gynecology who were given antibiotics according to the existing trends in the hospital.Results: Almost 72% women received prophylactic antibiotics within 30-60 minutes of skin incision while rest 28% received it before 60 minutes. In post-operative period around 80% of the women received injectable antibiotics for 48 hours, 12% for 72 hours and rest 8% received antibiotics for more than 72 hours. 90% of the patients received injections ceftriaxone 1 gm IV BD, gentamycin 80 mg IV BD metronidazole 400 mg iv TDS while 10% received injection Ampicillin 500 mg QID along with Injection Metronidazole 400 mg iv TDS and injection gentamycin 80 mg IV BD. Two percent of the cases developed wound sepsis and required change to higher antibiotics.Conclusions: In spite of recommendations by International Guidelines for single dose of prophylactic antibiotics, multiple doses are being given. There are no Indian guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis in cesarean sections and as a result, various combinations of antibiotics are being given for variable duration leading to antibiotic resistance and increased cost of treatment

    Taxonomy of hybridly polarized Stokes vortex beams

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    Structured beams carrying topological defects, namely phase and Stokes singularities, have gained extensive interest in numerous areas of optics. The non-separable spin and orbital angular momentum states of hybridly polarized Stokes singular beams provide additional freedom for manipulating optical fields. However, the characterization of hybridly polarized Stokes vortex beams remains challenging owing to the degeneracy associated with the complex polarization structures of these beams. In addition, experimental noise factors such as relative phase, amplitude, and polarization difference together with beam fluctuations add to the perplexity in the identification process. Here, we present a generalized diffraction-based Stokes polarimetry approach assisted with deep learning for efficient identification of Stokes singular beams. A total of 15 classes of beams are considered based on the type of Stokes singularity and their associated mode indices. The resultant total and polarization component intensities of Stokes singular beams after diffraction through a triangular aperture are exploited by the deep neural network to recognize these beams. Our approach presents a classification accuracy of 98.67% for 15 types of Stokes singular beams that comprise several degenerate cases. The present study illustrates the potential of diffraction of the Stokes singular beam with polarization transformation, modeling of experimental noise factors, and a deep learning framework for characterizing hybridly polarized beam

    Teaching health advocacy to medical students: a comparison study.

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    CONTEXT: Many encourage service learning and health advocacy training in medical student education, but related evaluation is limited. OBJECTIVES: To assess (1) impact of a required community health advocacy training for medical students on student attitudes, knowledge, and skills; (2) student characteristics associated with higher advocacy knowledge and skills; and (3) perspectives of community-based organizations (CBOs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: University of Miami Miller School of Medicine (UMMSM) Regional Medical Campus and main campus. PARTICIPANTS: Medical students at both UMMSM campuses. INTERVENTION: Required community health advocacy training for first- and second-year students including classroom experiences and hands-on project in partnership with a CBO. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Student characteristics, health advocacy-related attitudes, self-reported and objective knowledge, and skills. Scores were compared between campuses, with multivariable modeling adjusting for individual student characteristics. Community-based organization perspectives were assessed via separate surveys. RESULTS: Ninety-eight (77%) regional campus students (intervention group) and 139 (30%) main campus students (comparison group) completed surveys. Versus the comparison group, the intervention group reported greater: mean knowledge of community health needs: 34.6 versus 31.1 (range: 11-44, P \u3c .01), knowledge about CBOs: 3.0 versus 2.7 (range 1-4, P \u3c .01) and knowledge of community resources: 5.4 versus 2.3 (range, 0-11, P \u3c .01), and mean skill scores: 12.7 versus 10.5 (score range: 4-16, P \u3c .01), following the intervention. Using adjusted analysis across both groups, female gender was associated with higher attitudes score. High level of previous community involvement was associated with higher attitude and skill scores. Higher self-reported educational debt was associated with higher skill scores. Community-based organization perspectives included high satisfaction and a desire to influence the training of future physicians. CONCLUSIONS: Medical student advocacy training in partnership with community-based organizations could be beneficial in improving student advocacy knowledge and skills in addressing community health issues and in developing sustainable community partnerships

    Which Internal Medicine Clerkship Characteristics Are Associated With Students’ Performance on the NBME Medicine Subject Exam? A Multi-Institutional Analysis

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    Purpose To identify which internal medicine clerkship characteristics may relate to NBME Medicine Subject Examination scores, given the growing trend toward earlier clerkship start dates. Method The authors used linear mixed effects models (univariable and multivariable) to determine associations between medicine exam performance and clerkship characteristics (longitudinal status, clerkship length, academic start month, ambulatory clinical experience, presence of a study day, involvement in a combined clerkship, preclinical curriculum type, medicine exam timing). Additional covariates included number of NBME clinical subject exams used, number of didactic hours, use of a criterion score for passing the medicine exam, whether medicine exam performance was used to designate clerkship honors, and United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 performance. The sample included 24,542 examinees from 62 medical schools spanning 3 academic years (2011–2014). Results The multivariable analysis found no significant association between clerkship length and medicine exam performance (all pairwise P > .05). However, a small number of examinees beginning their academic term in January scored marginally lower than those starting in July (P < .001). Conversely, examinees scored higher on the medicine exam later in the academic year (all pairwise P < .001). Examinees from schools that used a criterion score for passing the medicine exam also scored higher than those at schools that did not (P < .05). Step 1 performance remained positively associated with medicine exam performance even after controlling for all other variables in the model (P < .001). Conclusions In this sample, the authors found no association between many clerkship variables and medicine exam performance. Instead, Step 1 performance was the most powerful predictor of medicine exam performance. These findings suggest that medicine exam performance reflects the overall medical knowledge students accrue during their education rather than any specific internal medicine clerkship characteristics

    Polymeric drift control adjuvants for agricultural spraying

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    The movement of a pesticide or herbicide to an off-target site during agricultural spraying can cause injury to wildlife, plants and contamination of surface water. This phenomenon is known as spray drift and can be controlled by spraying during favorable environmental conditions, and by using low drift nozzles and drift control adjuvants (DCAs). Polymeric DCAs are the most common type of DCA and function by increasing the droplet size produced during spraying. There are, however, two main drawbacks of polymeric DCAs; they are prone to mechanical degradation during spraying which reduces their performance and they can produce oversized drops which reduces the efficacy of the spray. In this trend article, existing DCA technology is reviewed including the mechanism through which they function. This then provides a platform for the discussion of novel polymeric architectures which have currently not been applied in DCA formulations
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