865 research outputs found

    The role of magnetic fields in the scattering of p-modes

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    Aims. We determine the direct and indirect effects of magnetic field on p-mode scattering. Methods. We solve a set of magnetohydrodynamic equations using the Born approximation to determine phase shifts in p-modes due to a region of inhomogeneity. The region of inhomogeneity is a magnetic flux tube with the characteristics of flaring field lines. This enables us to investigate the magnetic field effects on the phase shifts. Results. The magnetic configuration of our flux tube model plays a vital role in the phase shifts of p-modes. The suppression of sound speed and pressure within the flux tube region is not the only factor to consider in the scattering of p-modes. There is a direct effect of the magnetic fields caused by the flaring of field lines on phase shifts

    Sensitivity of p-mode absorption on magnetic region properties and kernel functions

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    Aims. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage tube waves are excited in magnetic flux tubes by p-mode forcing. These tube waves carry energy away from the p-mode cavity which results in a source of absorption. We wish to see the effect of an ensemble of randomly distributed thin magnetic flux tubes on the absorption of p-modes for the model plage region and also study the effect of the spacial weighting function on the theoretically calculated absorption coefficients. Methods. We calculate the absorption coefficients of p modes for a model plage, assumed to consist of an ensemble of many thin magnetic flux tubes with randomly distributed plasma properties. Each magnetic flux tube in the ensemble is modelled as axisymmetric, non-interacting, vertically oriented and untwisted. Results. We find that the magnitude and the form of the absorption coefficient is sensitive to the plasma-beta of the tubes which is consistent with previous work. Both the random distribution used to model the ensemble of flux tubes and the spatial weighting function inherent to the measurement of the absorption affect the absorption. As the width of the weighting function increases, the absorption increases

    Interaction of p modes with a collection of thin magnetic tubes

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    We investigate the net effect of a multitude of thin magnetic tubes on the energy of ambient acoustic p modes. A p mode, when incident on a thin magnetic flux tube, excites magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) tube waves. These tube waves propagate vertically along the flux tube carrying away energy from the p-mode cavity resulting in the absorption of incident p-mode energy. We calculate the absorption arising from the excitation of sausage MHD waves within a collection of many non-interacting magnetic flux tubes with differing plasma properties. We find that the shape and magnitude of the absorption, when compared with the observationally measured absorption, favours a model with a maximum-flux boundary condition applied at the photosphere and a narrow distribution of plasma β in an ensemble with mean β value between 0.5 and 1

    Five-minute oscillation power within magnetic elements in the solar atmosphere

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    It has long been known that magnetic plage and sunspots are regions in which the power of acoustic waves is reduced within the photospheric layers. Recent observations now suggest that this suppression of power extends into the low chromosphere and is also present in small magnetic elements far from active regions. In this paper we investigate the observed power suppression in plage and magnetic elements, by modeling each as a collection of vertically aligned magnetic fibrils and presuming that the velocity within each fibril is the response to buffeting by incident p modes in the surrounding field-free atmosphere. We restrict our attention to modeling observations made near the solar disk center, where the line-of-sight velocity is nearly vertical and hence, only the longitudinal component of the motion within the fibril contributes. Therefore, we only consider the excitation of axisymmetric sausage waves and ignore kink oscillations as their motions are primarily horizontal. We compare the vertical motion within the fibril with the vertical motion of the incident p mode by constructing the ratio of their powers. In agreement with observational measurements we find that the total power is suppressed within strong magnetic elements for frequencies below the acoustic cut-off frequency. However, further physical effects need to be examined for understanding the observed power ratios for stronger magnetic field strengths and higher frequencies. We also find that the magnitude of the power deficit increases with the height above the photosphere at which the measurement is made. Furthermore, we argue that the area of the solar disk over which the power suppression extends increases as a function of height

    Differential regulation of different human papilloma virus variants by the POU family transcription factor Brn-3a

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    The Brn-3a POU family transcription factor is over-expressed in human cervical carcinoma biopsies and is able to activate expression of the human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) upstream regulatory region (URR), which drives the expression of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Inhibition of Brn-3a expression in human cervical cancer cells inhibits HPV gene expression and reduces cellular growth and anchorage independence in vitro as well as the ability to form tumours in vivo. Here we show that Brn-3a differentially regulates different HPV-16 variants that have previously been shown to be associated with different risks of progression to cervical carcinoma. In human cervical material Brn-3a levels correlate directly with HPV E6 levels in individuals infected with a high risk variant of HPV-16 whereas this is not the case for a low risk variant. Moreover, the URRs of high and intermediate risk variants are activated by Brn-3a in transfection assays whereas the URR of a low risk variant is not. The change of one or two bases in a low risk variant URR to their equivalent in a higher risk URR can render the URR responsive to Brn-3a and vice versa. These results help explain why the specific interplay between viral and cellular factors necessary for the progression to cervical carcinoma, only occurs in a minority of those infected with HPV-16

    Color Capable Sub-Pixel Resolving Optofluidic Microscope and Its Application to Blood Cell Imaging for Malaria Diagnosis

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    Miniaturization of imaging systems can significantly benefit clinical diagnosis in challenging environments, where access to physicians and good equipment can be limited. Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope (SROFM) offers high-resolution imaging in the form of an on-chip device, with the combination of microfluidics and inexpensive CMOS image sensors. In this work, we report on the implementation of color SROFM prototypes with a demonstrated optical resolution of 0.66 µm at their highest acuity. We applied the prototypes to perform color imaging of red blood cells (RBCs) infected with Plasmodium falciparum, a particularly harmful type of malaria parasites and one of the major causes of death in the developing world

    Counterflow dielectrophoresis for trypanosome enrichment and detection in blood

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    Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a deadly disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, caused by single-celled protozoan parasites. Although it has been targeted for elimination by 2020, this will only be realized if diagnosis can be improved to enable identification and treatment of afflicted patients. Existing techniques of detection are restricted by their limited field-applicability, sensitivity and capacity for automation. Microfluidic-based technologies offer the potential for highly sensitive automated devices that could achieve detection at the lowest levels of parasitemia and consequently help in the elimination programme. In this work we implement an electrokinetic technique for the separation of trypanosomes from both mouse and human blood. This technique utilises differences in polarisability between the blood cells and trypanosomes to achieve separation through opposed bi-directional movement (cell counterflow). We combine this enrichment technique with an automated image analysis detection algorithm, negating the need for a human operator

    The auditory evoked-gamma response and its relation with the N1m

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    This study explored the patterns of oscillatory activity that underpin the N1m auditory evoked response. Evoked gamma activity is a small and relatively rarely-reported component of the auditory evoked response, and the objective of this work was to determine how this component relates to the larger and more prolonged changes in lower frequency bands. An event-related beamformer analysis of MEG data from monaural click stimulation was used to reconstruct volumetric images and virtual electrode time series. Group analysis of localisations showed that activity in the gamma band originated from a source that was more medial than those for activity in the theta-to-beta band, and virtual-electrode analysis showed that the source of the gamma activity could be statistically dissociated from the lower-frequency response. These findings are in accordance with separate functional roles for the activity in each frequency band, and provide evidence that the oscillatory activity that underpins the auditory evoked response may contain important information about the physiological basis of the macroscopic signals recorded by MEG in response to auditory stimulation

    Energy loss of solar p modes due to the excitation of magnetic sausage tube waves: importance of coupling the upper atmosphere

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    We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = –z 0)