29 research outputs found

    The retention of S35-labelled bovine serum albumin on normal and immunized rabbit liver tissue

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    The S35-label of S35-BSA was detected in the liver tissue of rabbits to the extent of 0.02 per cent (10 µg or sime 1014 molecules) of the injected material at 140 days after injection. The rate of loss of antigen at the termination of the experiment was of such an order that significant amounts would be expected to persist for at least several years. Data are reported which extend the retention data previously reported on S35-labelled hemocyanin. They indicate that amounts of the order of 0.05 per cent (25 µg.) of antigen material persist at 330 days after injection. All of the radioactivity of material retained in the liver tissue 6 weeks after injection was immunologically related to the original S35-BSA antigen. Preliminary studies are reported which indicate that the retained antigen is bound to ribonucleic acid. A new method is described for the isolation of p-azophenylsulfonate bovine serum albumin from tissue extracts by means of a Dowex 2 adsorbent

    Competition of haptens

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    Groups of rabbits were injected with either bovine serum albumin, sheep red cell stroma, or keyhole limpet hemocyanin to which 2,4-dinitrophenyl and/or p-azophenyl arsonate groups had been coupled. Groups of animals received either doubly coupled antigen or an equivalent mixture of singly coupled antigens. Materials were injected intravenously as a solution or subcutaneously and intramuscularly in complete Freund's adjuvant. The presence of dinitrophenyl groups on the immunizing antigen could suppress, partially or completely, the antibody response to p-azophenyl arsonate when this hapten was located on the same molecule. Suppression was dependent on the ratio of haptenic groups on the molecule, appeared to be greatly affected by the method of immunization, and could be demonstrated in all three antigen systems. Partial suppression was manifested in decreased frequency and delayed appearance of the response as well as decreased maximal antibody titers. These findings appear irreconcilable with the possibility of direct clonal selection of antibody-producing cells by unprocessed antigen


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    The retention of antigen in rabbit liver tissue, resulting from a primary intravenous injection, is influenced by immunization brought about by subsequent intravenous injections of the same antigen. In rabbits given a single primary intravenous injection of radioactive antigen, the retention of radioactivity in liver tissue, after a period of 21 days, was greater than when the primary injection was followed by secondary injections of the same, but non-radioactive antigen. The results were similar for both S35-azohemocyanin and S35-azo-bovine-serum-albumin, except the hemocyanin was retained to a greater extent than the albumin. There was very little if any correlation between the number of secondary injections and retention of the initial injection. Quantitative antibody nitrogen data, obtained for the serum of each rabbit showed, in general, an inverse relationship between circulating antibody and radioactivity retained, i.e. the higher the circulating antibody titer, the lower the retention of radioactivity in liver tissue. Passively administered homologous antibody did not produce a change in the retention of the primary injection of antigen nor did secondary injections of a heterologous native protein injected according to the same immunization schedule as the homologous azoprotein. From these results it may be concluded that an intracellular antibody-forming activity influences the loss (or retention) of antigen deposited in liver tissue and that the mechanism is immunologically specific


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    Two soluble antigens, BSA and KLH labeled with sulfanilate-35S, when injected intravenously into normal animals, were excreted in the urine to over 70% in 24 hr. Over the next 6 days, 25% more was excreted after which time only a trace could be detected. Much of the antigen remaining from the primary injection appeared in the urine following a secondary injection of the unlabeled protein carrier at 7 days after primary injection. The antigen material found in the urine was quite heterogeneous with respect to physical properties and much of it was associated with RNA material as shown by chromatographic analyses. The main difference between the labeled material released following the primary and secondary injection was the higher degree of association of antigen material with nucleotide material after secondary injection as compared with primary injection. Further study is needed to distinguish qualitative from quantitative changes of the components, antigen and nucleic acid, and also the nature of their association. Possible similarities were found for the RNA-antigen material released from tissue after secondary injection of unlabeled antigen, and the material that was isolated previously from liver


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    The Distribution of S³⁵-Labeled Bovine Serum Albumin in Newborn and Immunologically Tolerant Adult Rabbits

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    The fate of injected S³⁵-labeled sulfanilic acid-azoalbumin in the serum, various organs, and liver fractions was compared in the newborn and adult rabbit and in specifically unresponsive and normal adult rabbits. Exponential decay of the injected antigen without the usual immune phase of elimination was observed in newborn and unresponsive adult animals. Comparison of organ distribution of radioactivity in adults and animals injected at birth and 21 days of age showed persistence in the liver at least as long as 3 weeks in all groups (which was the time chosen for observation). The slight differences in spleen and thymus concentrations with age are of undetermined significance. Comparison of the organ distribution of antigen in unresponsive adult rabbits and in normal ones showed slight differences which were similar to those predicted from previous immunization of adults which gave low grade antibody response. There was a slight selective accumulation of antigen in the nuclear fraction of liver homogenates of unresponsive animals, but no other differences were observed