1,185 research outputs found

    X-ray position detector

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    An X-ray position detector for real time operation is described. A set of proportional counters is arranged into an array which can detect and indicate the position of an X-ray interaction within the array, in the X Y plane

    The scientific results of the low energy portion of A-2

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    Galactic phenomena observed using the HEAO 1 detectors are discussed. A source map of the soft X-ray sky is presented. Specific topics covered include the optical outburst of U Geminorum, low energy RS CVn stars, and the dwarf nova SS Cygni. Aspects of the SS Cygni pulsations are analyzed

    High angular resolution cosmic X-ray astronomy observations in the energy range 0.15-2 keV and XUV observations of nearby stars from an attitude controlled rocket

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    The construction of a two dimensional focusing Wolter Type I mirror system for X-ray and XUV astronomical observations from an Astrobee F sounding rocket is described. The mirror design goal will have a one degree field, a 20-arc seconds resolution, an effective area of about 50 sq cm at 1 keV and 10 sq cm at 0.25 keV on axis. A star camera provides aspect data to about 15-arc seconds. Two detectors are placed at the focus with an interchange mechanism to allow a detector change during flight. The following specific developments are reported: (1) position sensitive proportional counter development; (2) channel plate multiplier development; (3) telescope mirror development and payload structure; (4) Australian rocket flight results; (5) Comet Kohoutek He I observation; and (6) Vela, Puppis A, and Gem-Mon bright patch observations

    Support of selected X-ray studies to be performed using data from the Uhuru (SAS-A) satellite

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    A new measurement of the diffuse X-ray emission sets more stringent upper limits on the fluctuations of the background and on the number counts of X-ray sources with absolute value of b 20 deg than previous measurements. A random sample of background data from the Uhuru satellite gives a relative fluctuation in excess of statistics of 2.0% between 2.4 and 6.9 keV. The hypothesis that the relative fluctuation exceeds 2.9% can be rejected at the 90% confidence level. No discernable energy dependence is evident in the fluctuations in the pulse height data, when separated into three energy channels of nearly equal width from 1.8 to 10.0 keV. The probability distribution of fluctuations was convolved with the photon noise and cosmic ray background deviation (obtained from the earth-viewing data) to yield the differential source count distribution for high latitude sources. Results imply that a maximum of 160 sources could be between 1.7 and 5.1 x 10 to the -11 power ergs/sq cm/sec (1-3 Uhuru counts)

    Laser mode-locking with saturable absorbers

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    In this paper we describe a mode-locked laser in terms of traveling pulses of light. We show that the energy absorbed by a saturable absorber is a minimum if the pulselength is a minimum, and that two pulses are essentially as favorable as one if they meet at the position of the dye cell. Under steady-state pulsing conditions, however, we show that the pulses will have a width which depends on their energy. We find that for parameters appropriate to present Nd: glass experiments, the expected length is about 10-11 seconds, in agreement with observations. Finally, we demonstrate the rather surprising result that a linearly dispersive medium does not broaden the mode-locked laser pulses to first order

    The Complicated Evolution of the ACIS Contamination Layer over the Mission Life of the Chandra X-ray Observatory

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    The Chandra X-ray Observatory was launched almost 19 years ago and has been delivering spectacular science over the course of its mission. The Advanced CCD Imager Spectrometer is the prime instrument on the satellite, conducting over 90% of the observations. The CCDs operate at a temperature of -120 C and the optical blocking filter in front of the CCDs is at a temperature of approximately -60C. The surface of the OBF has accumulated a layer of contamination over the course of the mission. We have been characterizing the thickness, chemical composition, and spatial distribution of the contamination layer as a function of time over the mission. All three have exhibited significant changes with time. There has been a dramatic decrease in the accumulation rate of the contaminant starting in 2017. The lower accumulation rate may be due to a decrease in the deposition rate or an increase in the vaporization rate or a combination of the two. We show that the current calibration file which models the additional absorption of the contamination layer is significantly overestimating that additional absorption by using the standard model spectrum for the supernova remnant 1E 0102.2-7219 developed by the International Astronomical Consortium for High Energy Calibration. In addition, spectral data from the cluster of galaxies known as Abell 1795 and the Blazar Markarian 421 are used to generate a model of the absorption produced by the contamination layer. The Chandra X-ray Center calibration team is preparing a revised calibration file that more accurately represents the complex time dependence of the accumulation rate, the spatial dependence, and the chemical composition of the contaminant. Given the rapid changes in the contamination layer over the past year, future calibration observations at a higher cadence will be necessary to more accurately monitor such changes.Comment: 15 pages, 10 figures, SPIE Astronomical Instruments and Telescopes 2018, Conference Series, 1069

    Infrared Absorption at 10.6 μ in GaAs

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    The diffuse component of the cosmic X-radiation

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    The A-2 experiment on HEAO-1 is specifically developed to study the diffuse radiation of the entire X-ray sky over a wide bandwidth, covering both the soft X-ray emission from nearby regions of the galaxy and the isotropic hard X-radiation indicative of remote extragalactic origins. A partial conclusion from the experiment is that a hot thermal plasma, on a scale comparable to that of the universe, may be the principal source of hard X-radiation characteristic of the extragalactic sky. Some key features of this background were defined
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