3,940 research outputs found

    A New Family of Cavernicolous Millipedes with the Description of a New Genus and Species from Idaho (Diplopoda: Chordeumida: Chordeumidea)

    Get PDF
    The Chordeumidea is accumulating species names faster than any other group of North American Diplopoda. About one-half its species, 47, have been described since 1950. This recent growth has occurred because the small size, localized populations, and, frequently, cave habitus of these millipeds have obstructed thorough collection in the past. These factors have only recently been overcome by comprehensive collecting. As a result of this rapidgrowth and the many artificial groupings which result from it, much organization of the higher classification remains to be done. Hoffman (1961) emphasizes that co- operation between workers, more thorough descriptions, more accurate illustrations, and revisions are necessary if a proper classification is to be attained. Described herein is a new cave form unique among the known North American Chordeumidea. Related to Cleidogonidae, Conotylidae, and Bactropidae, it is distinguished from these families by having the ninth legs reduced and unsegmented. This species represents the type of a new family, which we name after the state in which it was collected

    "Willingness to Pay for Electric Vehicles and their Attributes"

    Get PDF
    This article presents a stated preference study of electric vehicle choice using data from a national survey. We used a choice experiment wherein 3029 respondents were asked to choose between their preferred gasoline vehicle and two electric versions of that preferred vehicle. We estimated a latent class random utility model and used the results to estimate the willingness to pay for five electric vehicle attributes: driving range, charging time, fuel cost saving, pollution reduction, and performance. Driving range, fuel cost savings, and charging time led in importance to respondents. Individuals were willing to pay (wtp) from 35to35 to 75 for a mile of added driving range, with incremental wtp per mile decreasing at higher distances. They were willing to pay from 425to425 to 3250 per hour reduction in charging time (for a 50 mile charge). Respondents capitalized about 5 years of fuel saving into the purchase price of an electric vehicle. We simulated our model over a range of electric vehicle configurations and found that people with the highest values for electric vehicles were willing to pay a premium above their wtp for a gasoline vehicle that ranged from 6000to6000 to 16,000 for electric vehicles with the most desirable attributes. At the same time, our results suggest that battery cost must drop significantly before electric vehicles will find a mass market without subsidy.Electric Vehicles, Stated Preference, Discrete Choice

    "Can Vehicle-to-Grid Revenue Help Electric Vehicles on the Market?"

    Get PDF
    Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) electric vehicles can return power stored in their batteries back to the power grid and be programmed to do so at times when power prices are high. Since providing this service can lead to payments to owners of vehicles, it effectively reduces the cost of electric vehicles. Using data from a national stated preference survey (n = 3029), this paper presents the first study of the potential consumer demand for V2G electric vehicles. In our choice experiment, 3029 respondents compared their preferred gasoline vehicle with two V2G electric vehicles. The V2G vehicles were described by a set of electric vehicle attributes and V2G contract requirements such as “required plug-in time” and “guaranteed minimum driving range”. The contract requirements specify a contract between drivers and a power aggregator for providing reserve power to the grid. Our findings suggest the V2G concept is mostly likely to help EVs on the market if power aggregators operate on pay-as-you-go-basis or provide consumers with advanced cash payment (upfront discounts on the price of EVs) in exchange for V2G restrictions.electric vehicles, vehicle-to-grid, stated preference, latent-class model

    Terdiurnal Oscillations in OH Meinel Rotational Temperatures for Fall Conditions at Northern Mid-latitude Sites

    Get PDF
    High‐precision (∼0.5 K) measurements of OH Meinel (M) (6,2) rotational temperatures above the Bear Lake Observatory, UT (42°N, 112°W) during October 1996 have revealed an interesting and unexpected mean nocturnal pattern. Ten quality nights (\u3e100 h) of data have been used to form a mean night for autumnal, near‐equinoctial conditions. The mean temperature and RMS variability associated with this mean night were 203 ± 5 K and 2.4 K, respectively, and compare very favorably with expectations based on Na‐lidar measurements of mean tidal temperature perturbations over Urbana, IL (40°N, 88°W) during the fall 1996. Furthermore, this comparison shows that the 8‐h tide was the dominant source of the mean nocturnal temperature variability in the OH M region during this period. Additional data, obtained at Fort Collins, CO (41°N, 105°W) in November 1997, illustrate the occurrence of an 8‐h component of OH temperature variability about two months after the equinox and show that daily amplitudes as high as ≅15 K are possible

    Relation between Childhood Obesity and Adult Cardiovascular Risk

    Get PDF
    The incidence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming pace in the pediatric population, just as in the adult population. The adult comorbidities associated with this risk factor are well-recognized and are being further elucidated continually. Additionally, we are gradually developing a better understanding of the risks of overweight and obesity among children while they are still young. However, there is now a growing body of evidence showing that childhood obesity not only leads all too frequently to adult obesity, but is in itself a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome and resultant cardiovascular risk in adulthood. If current trends continue, the problem of pediatric overweight and obesity will become of unmanageable proportions once these individuals reach adulthood. Future research efforts toward understanding this complex problem will need to focus on those overweight and obese children who later went on to change their metabolic course and become normal-weight adults

    France and SDI

    Get PDF
    Those critics who argue that the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) will divide the Atlantic alliance, frequently cite the French Government\u27s opposition as evidence. The French view of SDI, however, is neither simple nor monolithic

    Maximum Penetration of Atmospheric Gravity Waves Observed During ALOHA-93

    Get PDF
    Atmospheric Gravity Waves (AGWs) are subject to altitude propagation limits which are governed by the diffusion processes. Diffusion times and scales which exceed the wave period and wavelength define the limiting domain for AGWs. An expression is presented which defines the upper altitude limit to which AGWs can propagate given vertical diffusion constraints of the atmosphere. Airglow, lidar, and radar measurements are combined to characterize the intrinsic AGW parameters in the 80–105 km altitude region. A subset of AGWs (17) observed by airglow imagers during the ALOHA‐93 were made when simultaneous wind measurements were available and intrinsic wave parameters were calculated. The limiting altitude of propagation for these measured monochromatic waves is calculated to range from 110–150 km (with a mean limiting altitude of 130 km). The altitude limit is necessarily lower for waves with short vertical wavelengths and longer intrinsic periods. This observation is important for a large number of issues including energetic considerations regarding thermospheric heating in models which consider upward propagating AGWs (and energy flux) of tropospheric origin. This limited data base should be expanded for statistical significance in future work
    corecore