396 research outputs found

    Analyse climatique passée et future des terres viticoles sur le secteur Ventoux

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    Analyse climatique passée et future des terres viticoles sur le secteur Ventou

    Antibodies to Enteroviruses in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Acute Flaccid Myelitis.

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    Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) has caused motor paralysis in >560 children in the United States since 2014. The temporal association of enterovirus (EV) outbreaks with increases in AFM cases and reports of fever, respiratory, or gastrointestinal illness prior to AFM in >90% of cases suggest a role for infectious agents. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 14 AFM and 5 non-AFM patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases in 2018 were investigated by viral-capture high-throughput sequencing (VirCapSeq-VERT system). These CSF and serum samples, as well as multiple controls, were tested for antibodies to human EVs using peptide microarrays. EV RNA was confirmed in CSF from only 1 adult AFM case and 1 non-AFM case. In contrast, antibodies to EV peptides were present in CSF of 11 of 14 AFM patients (79%), significantly higher than controls, including non-AFM patients (1/5 [20%]), children with Kawasaki disease (0/10), and adults with non-AFM CNS diseases (2/11 [18%]) (P = 0.023, 0.0001, and 0.0028, respectively). Six of 14 CSF samples (43%) and 8 of 11 sera (73%) from AFM patients were immunoreactive to an EV-D68-specific peptide, whereas the three control groups were not immunoreactive in either CSF (0/5, 0/10, and 0/11; P = 0.008, 0.0003, and 0.035, respectively) or sera (0/2, 0/8, and 0/5; P = 0.139, 0.002, and 0.009, respectively).IMPORTANCE The presence in cerebrospinal fluid of antibodies to EV peptides at higher levels than non-AFM controls supports the plausibility of a link between EV infection and AFM that warrants further investigation and has the potential to lead to strategies for diagnosis and prevention of disease

    Genetic determinism of sensitivity to Corynespora cassiicola exudates in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)

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    An indirect phenotyping method was developed in order to estimate the susceptibility of rubber tree clonal varieties to Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease caused by the ascomycete Corynespora cassiicola. This method consists in quantifying the impact of fungal exudates on detached leaves by measuring the induced electrolyte leakage (EL%). The tested exudates were either crude culture filtrates from diverse C. cassiicola isolates or the purified cassiicolin (Cas1), a small secreted effector protein produced by the aggressive isolate CCP. The test was found to be quantitative, with the EL% response proportional to toxin concentration. For eight clones tested with two aggressive isolates, the EL% response to the filtrates positively correlated to the response induced by conidial inoculation. The toxicity test applied to 18 clones using 13 toxinic treatments evidenced an important variability among clones and treatments, with a significant additional clone x treatment interaction effect. A genetic linkage map was built using 306 microsatellite markers, from the F1 population of the PB260 x RRIM600 family. Phenotyping of the population for sensitivity to the purified Cas1 effector and to culture filtrates from seven C. cassiicola isolates revealed a polygenic determinism, with six QTL detected on five chromosomes and percentages of explained phenotypic variance varying from 11 to 17%. Two common QTL were identified for the CCP filtrate and the purified cassiicolin, suggesting that Cas1 may be the main effector of CCP filtrate toxicity. The CCP filtrate clearly contrasted with all other filtrates. The toxicity test based on Electrolyte Leakage Measurement offers the opportunity to assess the sensitivity of rubber genotypes to C. cassiicola exudates or purified effectors for genetic investigations and early selection, without risk of spreading the fungus in plantations. However, the power of this test for predicting field susceptibility of rubber clones to CLF will have to be further investigated. (Résumé d'auteur

    Interdiffusion measurements in thermally controlled microchannel using infrared spectroscopic imaging

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    many applications, knowledge of the mass diffusivity coefficient is mandatory to optimize the design and operating conditions of microfluidic devices and chemical reactions. The literature reports few values due to limited techniques, and the impact of the fluid temperature is rarely taken into account when the diffusivity is measured. In this study, we present an imaging method to investigate and quantify the interdiffusion of two fluids in a microchannel under controlled temperatures. The experimental setup combines a thermally controlled microfluidic chip and a microscale infrared (IR) spectroscopy imaging technique. The mass diffusivity of formic acid (HCOOH) in sulfuric acid (H2SO4) was measured from room temperature to 50 ‚ó¶C to demonstrate the performance of the setup. This work offers a rapid tool and a methodology for accurate contactless interdiffusion measurements in thermally controlled T-shape reactors applicable a large set of chemicals

    Lattice dynamics and spin excitations in the metal-organic framework [CH3_3NH3_3][Co(HCOO)3_3]

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    In metal-organic-framework (MOF) perovskites, both magnetic and ferroelectric orderings can be readily realized by compounding spin and charge degrees of freedom. The hydrogen bonds that bridge the magnetic framework and organic molecules have long been thought of as a key in generating multiferroic properties. However, the underlying physical mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we combine neutron diffraction, quasielastic and inelastic neutron scattering, and THz spectroscopy techniques to thoroughly investigate the dynamical properties of the multiferroic MOF candidate [CH3_3NH3_3][Co(HCOO)3_3] through its multiple phase transitions. The wide range of energy resolutions reachable by these techniques enables us to scrutinize the coupling between the molecules and the framework throughout the phase transitions and interrogate a possible magnetoelectric coupling. Our results also reveal a structural change around 220 K which may be associated with the activation of a nodding donkey mode of the methylammonium molecule due to the ordering of the CH3_3 groups. Upon the occurrence of the modulated phase transition around 130 K, the methylammonium molecules undergo a freezing of its reorientational motions which is concomitant with a change of the lattice parameters and anomalies of collective lattice vibrations. No significant change has been however observed in the lattice dynamics around the magnetic ordering, which therefore indicates the absence of a substantial magneto-electric coupling in zero-field

    Morfodin√Ęmica da foz do Arroio Carah√° em laguna costeira micromar√© (Lagoa dos Patos, sul do Brasil)

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    O Arroio Carah√° desemboca em uma enseada na margem oeste da Lagoa dos Patos, onde se observa a forma√ß√£o de uma barra arenosa que inviabiliza a navega√ß√£o de barcos pesqueiros de pequeno porte pelo canal. O objetivo deste estudo √© investigar os processos costeiros que envolvem o fechamento da foz do Arroio Carah√°, e as condi√ß√Ķes naturais que permitem o passe sobre a barra. Atrav√©s do georreferenciamento e da an√°lise de imagens a√©reas e de sat√©lite de 1953, 1977 e 2010, foi realizado o estudo do comportamento da linha de costa, que indicou um acentuado processo de retra√ß√£o na margem ao norte da foz do arroio, com taxa m√©dia de 1,1 m/ano, e prograda√ß√£o na margem ao sul, com taxa m√©dia de 0,2 m/ano. Atrav√©s da obten√ß√£o e tratamento de dados hidrodin√Ęmicos e morfol√≥gicos da regi√£o, foi realizada a simula√ß√£o dos processos costeiros na enseada com o software de modelagem num√©rica Delft-3D, utilizando os m√≥dulos de morfologia, hidrodin√Ęmico e de ondas acoplados. Houve forma√ß√£o de uma zona de converg√™ncia de correntes (NE e SO) na regi√£o central da enseada, resultando no desenvolvimento da barra arenosa na foz do Arroio Carah√°. As taxas m√©dias de transporte sedimentar nos perfis da foz, ao norte e ao sul, atingiram 7,3 m3/ano/m, 9 m3/ano/m e 6,7 m3/ano/m, respectivamente, com predomin√Ęncia de transporte l√≠quido para o sul. Ap√≥s a forma√ß√£o da barra arenosa na foz e seu consequente fechamento, as condi√ß√Ķes de baixa energia hidrodin√Ęmica da enseada e do canal n√£o permitiram remobilizar os sedimentos depositados. O processo natural que poder√° viabilizar a passagem de pequenas embarca√ß√Ķes pelo canal est√° associado √† eleva√ß√£o do n√≠vel d‚Äô√°gua da Lagoa dos Patos

    Lower Success Rate of Debridement and Implant Retention in Late Acute versus Early Acute Periprosthetic Joint Infection Caused by Staphylococcus spp. Results from a Matched Cohort Study

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    Background Surgical debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR) is currently recommended by international guidelines for both early acute (postsurgical) and late acute (hematogenous) periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). However, due to a different pathogenesis of infection, a different treatment strategy may be needed. Questions/purposes (1) Compared with early acute PJIs, are late acute PJIs associated with a higher risk of DAIR failure? (2) When stratified by microorganism, is the higher risk of failure in late acute PJI associated with Staphylocococcus aureus infection? (3) When analyzing patients with S. aureus infection, what factors are independently associated with DAIR failure? Methods In this multicenter observational study, early acute and late acute PJIs treated with DAIR were retrospectively evaluated and matched according to treating center, year of diagnosis, and infection-causing microorganism. If multiple matches were available, the early acute PJI diagnosed closest to the late acute PJI was selected. A total of 132 pairs were included. Treatment success was defined as a retained implant during follow-up without the need for antibiotic suppressive therapy. Results Late acute PJIs had a lower treatment success (46% [60 of 132]) compared with early acute PJIs (76% [100 of 132]), OR 3.9 [95% CI 2.3 to 6.6]; p <0.001), but the lower treatment success of late acute PJIs was only observed when caused by Staphylococcus spp (S. aureus: 34% versus 75%; p <0.001; coagulase-negative staphylococci: 46% versus 88%; p = 0.013, respectively). On multivariable analysis, late acute PJI was the only independent factor associated with an unsuccessful DAIR when caused by S. aureus (OR 4.52 [95% CI 1.79 to 11.41]; p <0.001). Conclusions Although DAIR seems to be a successful therapeutic strategy in the management of early acute PJI, its use in late acute PJI should be reconsidered when caused by Staphylococcus spp. Our results advocate the importance of isolating the causative microorganism before surgery
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