16,358 research outputs found

    5-HT2A Receptors Modulate Dopamine D2-mediated Maternal Effects

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    Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors are expressed throughout the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine pathways, and manipulation of this receptor system has a profound impact on dopamine functions and dopamine-mediated behaviors. It is highly likely that 5-HT2A receptors may also modulate the D2-mediated maternal effects. The present study investigated this issue and also explored the possible behavioral mechanisms. We tested the effects of two D2 drugs (an agonist quinpirole: 0.5, 1.0 mg/kg, and a potent D2 antagonist haloperidol: 0.05, 0.10 mg/kg, sc) and their combinations with two 5-HT2A drugs (a selective 5-HT2A agonist TCB-2: 2.5 mg/kg, and 5-HT2A antagonist MDL100907, 1.0 mg/kg, sc) on maternal behavior in Sprague-Dawley postpartum females. Individually, TCB-2 (2.5 mg/kg, sc) and quinpirole (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, sc) reduced pup preference and disrupted home-cage maternal behavior. In contrast, haloperidol (0.10 mg/kg, sc) only disrupted home-cage maternal behavior, but did not suppress pup preference. MDL100907 (1.0 mg/kg, sc) by itself had no effect on either pup preference or maternal behavior. When administered in combination, pretreatment of TCB-2 did not alter quinpirole’s disruption of pup preference and home-cage maternal behavior (possibly due to the floor effect), however, it did enhance haloperidol’s disruption of pup retrieval in the home cage. MDL100907 had no effect both quinpirole’s and haloperidol’s disruption of pup preference and home-cage maternal behavior. Interestingly, haloperidol attenuated TCB-2’s disruptive effect on pup preference. These findings suggest that activation of 5-HT2A receptors tends to enhance D2-mediated maternal disruption, whereas blockade of 5-HT2A receptors is less effective. They also suggest that 5-HT2A receptors may have a direct effect on maternal behavior independent of their interaction with D2 receptors. The possible behavioral and neural mechanisms by which 5-HT2A-and D2-mediated maternal effects and their interaction are discussed

    A meta-analysis of parton distribution functions

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    A "meta-analysis" is a method for comparison and combination of nonperturbative parton distribution functions (PDFs) in a nucleon obtained with heterogeneous procedures and assumptions. Each input parton distribution set is converted into a "meta-parametrization" based on a common functional form. By analyzing parameters of the meta-parametrizations from all input PDF ensembles, a combined PDF ensemble can be produced that has a smaller total number of PDF member sets than the original ensembles. The meta-parametrizations simplify the computation of the PDF uncertainty in theoretical predictions and provide an alternative to the 2010 PDF4LHC convention for combination of PDF uncertainties. As a practical example, we construct a META ensemble for computation of QCD observables at the Large Hadron Collider using the next-to-next-to-leading order PDF sets from CTEQ, MSTW, and NNPDF groups as the input. The META ensemble includes a central set that reproduces the average of LHC predictions based on the three input PDF ensembles and Hessian eigenvector sets for computing the combined PDF+αs\alpha_s uncertainty at a common QCD coupling strength of 0.118.Comment: version to appear on JHE
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