45 research outputs found

### Theory of shot noise in space-charge limited diffusive conduction regime

As is well known, the fluctuations from a stable stationary nonequilibrium
state are described by a linearized nonhomogeneous Boltzmann-Langevin equation.
The stationary state itself may be described by a nonlinear Boltzmann equation.
The ways of its linearization sometimes seem to be not unique. We argue that
there is actually a unique way to obtain a linear equation for the
fluctuations. In the present paper we treat as an example an analytical theory
of nonequilibrium shot noise in a diffusive conductor under the space charge
limited regime. Our approach is compared with that of Schomerus, Mishchenko and
Beenakker [Phys. Rev. B 60, 5839 (1999)]. We find some difference between the
present theory and the approach of their paper and discuss a possible origin of
the difference. We believe that it is related to the fundamentals of the theory
of fluctuation phenomena in a nonequilibrium electron gas.Comment: 17 pages, no figure

### Propagation of coherent waves in elastically scattering media

A general method for calculating statistical properties of speckle patterns
of coherent waves propagating in disordered media is developed. It allows one
to calculate speckle pattern correlations in space, as well as their
sensitivity to external parameters. This method, which is similar to the
Boltzmann-Langevin approach for the calculation of classical fluctuations,
applies for a wide range of systems: From cases where the ray propagation is
diffusive to the regime where the rays experience only small angle scattering.
The latter case comprises the regime of directed waves where rays propagate
ballistically in space while their directions diffuse. We demonstrate the
applicability of the method by calculating the correlation function of the wave
intensity and its sensitivity to the wave frequency and the angle of incidence
of the incoming wave.Comment: 19 pages, 5 figure

### Thermal Fluctuations of the Electric Field in the Presence of Carrier Drift

We consider a semiconductor in a non-equilibrium steady state, with a dc
current. On top of the stationary carrier motion there are fluctuations. It is
shown that the stationary motion of the carriers (i.e., their drift) can have a
profound effect on the electromagnetic field fluctuations in the bulk of the
sample as well as outside it, close to the surface (evanescent waves in the
near field). The effect is particularly pronounced near the plasma frequency.
This is because drift leads to a significant modification of the dispersion
relation for the bulk and surface plasmons.Comment: Comments are welcom

### Zero bias anomaly out of equilibrium

The non-equilibrium zero bias anomaly (ZBA) in the tunneling density of
states of a diffusive metallic film is studied. An effective action describing
virtual fluctuations out-of-equilibrium is derived. The singular behavior of
the equilibrium ZBA is smoothed out by real processes of inelastic scattering.Comment: 4 page

### Radiative transfer theory for vacuum fluctuations

A semiclassical kinetic theory is presented for the fluctuating photon flux
emitted by a disordered medium in thermal equilibrium. The kinetic equation is
the optical analog of the Boltzmann-Langevin equation for electrons. Vacuum
fluctuations of the electromagnetic field provide a new source of fluctuations
in the photon flux, over and above the fluctuations due to scattering. The
kinetic theory in the diffusion approximation is applied to the
super-Poissonian noise due to photon bunching and to the excess noise due to
beating of incident radiation with the vacuum fluctuations.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, revised version according to referee's comment

### Spin noise in quantum dot ensembles

We study theoretically spin fluctuations of resident electrons or holes in
singly charged quantum dots. The effects of external magnetic field and
effective fields caused by the interaction of electron and nuclei spins are
analyzed. The fluctuations of spin Faraday, Kerr and ellipticity signals
revealing the spin noise of resident charge carriers are calculated for the
continuous wave probing at the singlet trion resonance.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figure

### Semi-classical Theory of Conductance and Noise in Open Chaotic Cavities

Conductance and shot noise of an open cavity with diffusive boundary
scattering are calculated within the Boltzmann-Langevin approach. In
particular, conductance contains a non-universal geometric contribution,
originating from the presence of open contacts. Subsequently, universal
expressions for multi-terminal conductance and noise valid for all chaotic
cavities are obtained classically basing on the fact that the distribution
function in the cavity depends only on energy and using the principle of
minimal correlations.Comment: 4 pages, 1 .eps figur

### Coulomb screening in mesoscopic noise: a kinetic approach

Coulomb screening, together with degeneracy, is characteristic of the
metallic electron gas. While there is little trace of its effects in transport
and noise in the bulk, at mesoscopic scales the electronic fluctuations start
to show appreciable Coulomb correlations. Within a strictly standard Boltzmann
and Fermi-liquid framework, we analyze these phenomena and their relation to
the mesoscopic fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which we prove. We identify two
distinct screening mechanisms for mesoscopic fluctuations. One is the
self-consistent response of the contact potential in a non-uniform system. The
other couples to scattering, and is an exclusively non-equilibrium process.
Contact-potential effects renormalize all thermal fluctuations, at all scales.
Collisional effects are relatively short-ranged and modify non-equilibrium
noise. We discuss ways to detect these differences experimentally.Comment: Source: REVTEX. 16 pp.; 7 Postscript figs. Accepted for publication
in J. Phys.: Cond. Ma