114 research outputs found

    Prevalence and risk indicators of chronic pain in a rural community in South Africa

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    Background: Despite the acknowledgement that chronic pain may be a problem for adults in rural settings, there is a lack of epidemiological investigations on its occurrence in rural South Africa. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of chronic pain among adults in a rural community in South Africa and characterize the localization, severity, risk indicators and responses of pain sufferers. Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study using face-to-face interviews. Interviews elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics, general health status and presence of pain. Among those reporting pain, the duration, frequency, severity, activity limitation and impact was determined. Univariate statistics were used to describe the prevalence of chronic pain while bivariable χ2 tests and multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship of socio-demographic characteristics and reported health status with chronic pain. Results: A total of 394 adults were interviewed representing a response rate of 92.8%. Of these, 169 (42.9%; 95% CI: 37.4%-47.1%) reported suffering from chronic pain. The common sites were the back, knee, ankles, head and shoulders. The median pain score was 6 on a scale of 0-10 (IQR= 5-8) and the median number of sites of pain was 1 (IQR= 1-2). The type of pain slightly varied with age with younger adults reporting more back pain and headaches while older people reported more joint pain. Female gender (adjusted odds-ratio AOR= 2.2, 95% CI: 1.9-2.8) and being older than 50 years (AOR= 3.1, 95% CI:2.7-3.9) were identified as risk indicators for chronic pain in the sample. Respondents reported that they self-treated (88.3%); consulted with a doctor or nurse (74.3%); traditional-healer (24.5%) and spiritual-healer (4%). Most respondents (63.4%) reported only transient relief of their pain. Conclusions: Chronic pain is an important health problem in the surveyed community. Further comparative studies on the relationship with risk factors are needed meanwhile interventions targeting females and the elderly are recommended

    Chronic pain in the community: A survey in a township in Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Background: Comprehensive information is needed on the epidemiology and burden of chronic pain in the population for the development of appropriate health interventions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, severity, risk indicators and responses of chronic pain among adults in Ngangelizwe, Mthatha, South Africa. Method: A cross-sectional survey utilising structured interviews of a sample of adult residents was used. Interviews elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics, general health status, and the prevalence, duration, frequency, severity, activity limitation and impact of chronic pain. Results: More than 95% (n = 473) of the sampled adults participated in the study. Of these, 182 [38.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 36.3-42.5%] reported chronic pain in at least one anatomical site. The most common pain sites were the back and head. The median pain score was 5 on a scale of 0 to 10 [interquartile range (IQR) = 4-7] and the median number of sites of pain was 1 (IQR = 1-2). Female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7-3.9] and being older than 50 years of age (OR = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.6-4.1) were identified as risk indicators for chronic pain in the sample. Over 65% of respondents reported that they self-treated; 92.1% had consulted with a doctor or nurse, 13.6% consulted a traditional healer, and 34.5% consulted a pharmacist because of their pain. Despite this, over 50% reported that relief of their pain was transient. Conclusion: Chronic pain is a common general complaint in this community, but there is a need for focused attention on women and the elderly.Department of HE and Training approved lis

    Pain as a reason for primary care visits: cross-sectional survey in a rural and periurban health clinic in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Background: The burden of pain in primary care has not been described for South Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of pain in primary care and to characterise pain among adult patients attending a rural and a periurban clinic in the Eastern Cape (EC) Province. Method: cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among adult patients attending a rural and periurban clinic over four days. Consecutive patients were asked whether they were in the clinic because of pain and whether the pain was the major reason for their visit. Pain was characterised using an adaptation of the Brief Pain Inventory and the Pain Disability Index. The prevalence percentage and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of pain were estimated, and the relationship with demographic variables was determined at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Seven hundred and ninety-six adult patients were interviewed, representing a response rate of 97.4%. Almost three-quarters (74.6%; 95% CI: 63.2-81.4%) reported visiting the clinic because of pain. Pain was the primary reason for 393 (49.4%; 95% CI: 32.1-61.0%) visits and was secondary in 201 (25.3%; 95% CI: 12.8-33.7%) visits. The common sites of pain were the head, back and chest. The median pain score was eight on a scale of 0-10 (interquartile range: 6-8). Respondents experienced limitations in a number of activities of daily living as a result of pain. Conclusion: Pain is a central problem in public primary care settings in the EC Province and must therefore be a priority area for primary care research. Strategies are needed to develop to improve pain management at primary care level in the province.Department of HE and Training approved lis

    Dose-Weighted Adjusted Mantel-Haenszel Tests for Numeric Scaled Strata in a Randomized Trial

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    A recent three-arm parallel groups randomized clinical prevention trial had a protocol deviation causing participants to have fewer active doses of an in-office treatment than planned. The original statistical analysis plan stipulated a minimal assumption randomization-based extended Mantel-Haenszel (EMH) trend test of the high frequency, low frequency, and zero frequency treatment groups and a binary outcome. Thus a dose-weighted adjusted EMH (DWAEMH) test was developed with an extra set of weights corresponding to the number of active doses actually available, in the spirit of a pattern mixture model. The method can easily be implemented using standard statistical software. A set of Monte Carlo simulations using a logistic model was undertaken with (and without) actual dose-response effects through 1000 replicates for empirical power estimates (and 2100 for empirical size). Results showed size was maintained and power was improved for DWAEMH versus EMH and logistic regression Wald tests in the presence of a dose effect and treatment by dose interaction

    Clinically Determined and Self-Reported Dental Caries Status During and After Pregnancy Among Low-Income Hispanic Women

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    This analysis assessed, during and one-year after pregnancy: 1) the prevalence of and relationship between self-reported and clinically determined dental caries and oral health status, and whether self-reports are a potential proxy for professional determination; 2) factors associated with high levels of professionally determined or self-reported oral disease

    Patterns and correlates of tobacco control behavior among american association of pediatric dentistry members: a cross-sectional national study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>To determine the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors among US pediatric dentists.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A survey was conducted in 1998 among a national, random sample of 1500 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry members. Chi-square tests and logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals assessed factors related to pediatric dentists' tobacco control behaviors.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Response was 65% for the survey. Only 12% of respondents had prior tobacco prevention/cessation training. Of those untrained, 70% were willing to be trained. Less than two-thirds correctly answered any of four tobacco-related knowledge items. Over one-half agreed pediatric dentists should engage in tobacco control behaviors, but identified patient resistance as a barrier. About 24% of respondents reported always/often asking their adolescent patients about tobacco use; 73% reported always/often advising known tobacco users to quit; and 37% of respondents always/often assisting with stopping tobacco use. Feeling prepared to perform tobacco control behaviors (ORs = 1.9–2.8), a more positive attitude score (4 points) from 11 tobacco-related items (ORs = 1.5–1.8), and a higher statewide tobacco use prevalence significantly predicted performance of tobacco control behaviors.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Findings suggest thatraining programs on tobacco use and dependence treatment in the pediatric dental setting may be needed to promote tobacco control behaviors for adolescent patients.</p

    Interactive “Video Doctor” Counseling Reduces Drug and Sexual Risk Behaviors among HIV-Positive Patients in Diverse Outpatient Settings

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    , an interactive, patient-tailored computer program, was developed in the United States to improve clinic-based assessment and counseling for risky behaviors.We conducted a parallel groups randomized controlled trial (December 2003–September 2006) at 5 San Francisco area outpatient HIV clinics. Eligible patients (HIV-positive English-speaking adults) completed an in-depth computerized risk assessment. Participants reporting substance use or sexual risks (n = 476) were randomized in stratified blocks. The intervention group received tailored risk-reduction counseling from a “Video Doctor” via laptop computer and a printed Educational Worksheet; providers received a Cueing Sheet on reported risks. Compared with control, fewer intervention participants reported continuing illicit drug use (RR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.689, 0.957, p = 0.014 at 3 months; and RR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.540, 0.785, p<0.001 at 6 months) and unprotected sex (RR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.773, 0.993, p = 0.039 at 3 months; and RR 0.80, 95% CI: 0.686, 0.941, p = 0.007 at 6 months). Intervention participants reported fewer mean days of ongoing illicit drug use (-4.0 days vs. -1.3 days, p = 0.346, at 3 months; and -4.7 days vs. -0.7 days, p = 0.130, at 6 months) than did controls, and had fewer casual sex partners at (−2.3 vs. −1.4, p = 0.461, at 3 months; and −2.7 vs. −0.6, p = 0.042, at 6 months)., including Video Doctor counseling, is an efficacious and appropriate adjunct to risk-reduction efforts in outpatient settings, and holds promise as a public health HIV intervention

    Functional Remineralization of Dentin Lesions Using Polymer-Induced Liquid-Precursor Process

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    It was hypothesized that applying the polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) system to artificial lesions would result in time-dependent functional remineralization of carious dentin lesions that restores the mechanical properties of demineralized dentin matrix. 140 µm deep artificial caries lesions were remineralized via the PILP process for 7–28 days at 37°C to determine temporal remineralization characteristics. Poly-L-aspartic acid (27 KDa) was used as the polymeric process-directing agent and was added to the remineralization solution at a calcium-to-phosphate ratio of 2.14 (mol/mol). Nanomechanical properties of hydrated artificial lesions had a low reduced elastic modulus (ER = 0.2 GPa) region extending about 70 μm into the lesion, with a sloped region to about 140 μm where values reached normal dentin (18–20 GPa). After 7 days specimens recovered mechanical properties in the sloped region by 51% compared to the artificial lesion. Between 7–14 days, recovery of the outer portion of the lesion continued to a level of about 10 GPa with 74% improvement. 28 days of PILP mineralization resulted in 91% improvement of ER compared to the artificial lesion. These differences were statistically significant as determined from change-point diagrams. Mineral profiles determined by micro x-ray computed tomography were shallower than those determined by nanoindentation, and showed similar changes over time, but full mineral recovery occurred after 14 days in both the outer and sloped portions of the lesion. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed similar morphologies that were distinct from normal dentin with a clear line of demarcation between the outer and sloped portions of the lesion. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction showed that the starting lesions contained some residual mineral in the outer portions, which exhibited poor crystallinity. During remineralization, intrafibrillar mineral increased and crystallinity improved with intrafibrillar mineral exhibiting the orientation found in normal dentin or bone
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