47 research outputs found

    A wall-function approach to incorporating Knudsen-layer effects in gas micro flow simulations

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    For gas flows in microfluidic configurations, the Knudsen layer close to the wall can comprise a substantial part of the entire flow field and has a major effect on quantities such as the mass flow rate through micro devices. The Knudsen layer itself is characterized by a highly nonlinear relationship between the viscous stress and the strain rate of the gas, so even if the Navier-Stokes equations can be used to describe the core gas flow they are certainly inappropriate for the Knudsen layer itself. In this paper we propose a "wall-function" model for the stress/strain rate relations in the Knudsen layer. The constitutive structure of the Knudsen layer has been derived from results from kinetic theory for isothermal shear flow over a planar surface. We investigate the ability of this simplified model to predict Knudsen-layer effects in a variety of configurations. We further propose a semi-empirical Knudsen-number correction to this wall function, based on high-accuracy DSMC results, to extend the predictive capabilities of the model to greater degrees of rarefaction

    The usefulness of higher-order constitutive relations for describing the Knudsen layer

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    The Knudsen layer is an important rarefaction phenomenon in gas flows in and around microdevices. Its accurate and efficient modeling is of critical importance in the design of such systems and in predicting their performance. In this paper we investigate the potential that higher-order continuum equations may have to model the Knudsen layer, and compare their predictions to high-accuracy DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) data, as well as a standard result from kinetic theory. We find that, for a benchmark case, the most common higher-order continuum equation sets (Grad's 13 moment, Burnett, and super-Burnett equations) cannot capture the Knudsen layer. Variants of these equation families have, however, been proposed and some of them can qualitatively describe the Knudsen layer structure. To make quantitative comparisons, we obtain additional boundary conditions (needed for unique solutions to the higher-order equations) from kinetic theory. However, we find the quantitative agreement with kinetic theory and DSMC data is only slight

    Capturing the Knudsen layer in continuum-fluid models of non-equilibrium gas flows

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    In hypersonic aerodynamics and microflow device design, the momentum and energy fluxes to solid surfaces are often of critical importance. However, these depend on the characteristics of the Knudsen layer - the region of local non-equilibrium existing up to one or two molecular mean free paths from the wall in any gas flow near a surface. While the Knudsen layer has been investigated extensively using kinetic theory, the ability to capture it within a continuum-fluid formulation (in conjunction with slip boundary conditions) suitable for current computational fluid dynamics toolboxes would offer distinct and practical computational advantages

    Models for local ohmic quantum dissipation

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    We construct model master equations for local quantum dissipation. The master equations are in the form of Lindblad generators, with imposed constraints that the dissipations be strictly linear (i.e. ohmic), isotropic and translationally invariant. A particular form for is chosen to satisfy the constraints. The resulting master equations are given in both the Schr\"odinger and Heisenberg forms. We obtain fluctuation-dissipation relations, and discuss the relaxation of average kinetic energy to effective thermal equilibrium values. We compare our results to the Dekker and the Caldeira-Leggett master equations. These master equations allow a more general approach to quantum dissipation and the dynamics of quantum coherence to account for the nontrivial system-environment coupling in a local environment.Comment: 19 pages, REVTEX, PSU/TH/12

    Slip Model Performance for Micro-scale Gas Flows

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/76108/1/AIAA-2003-4050-903.pd

    Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Calculations in Support of the Columbia Shuttle Orbiter Accident Investigation

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    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method was used to provide 3-D simulations of the early entry phase of the Shuttle Orbiter. Undamaged and damaged scenarios were modeled to provide calibration points for engineering "bridging function" type of analysis. Currently the simulation technology (software and hardware) are mature enough to allow realistic simulations of three dimensional vehicles

    Sterol 14α-demethylase mutation leads to amphotericin B resistance in Leishmania mexicana

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    Amphotericin B has emerged as the therapy of choice for use against the leishmaniases. Administration of the drug in its liposomal formulation as a single injection is being promoted in a campaign to bring the leishmaniases under control. Understanding the risks and mechanisms of resistance is therefore of great importance. Here we select amphotericin B-resistant Leishmania mexicana parasites with relative ease. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that ergosterol, the sterol known to bind the drug, is prevalent in wild-type cells, but diminished in the resistant line, where alternative sterols become prevalent. This indicates that the resistance phenotype is related to loss of drug binding. Comparing sequences of the parasites’ genomes revealed a plethora of single nucleotide polymorphisms that distinguish wild-type and resistant cells, but only one of these was found to be homozygous and associated with a gene encoding an enzyme in the sterol biosynthetic pathway, sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51). The mutation, N176I, is found outside of the enzyme’s active site, consistent with the fact that the resistant line continues to produce the enzyme’s product. Expression of wild-type sterol 14α-demethylase in the resistant cells caused reversion to drug sensitivity and a restoration of ergosterol synthesis, showing that the mutation is indeed responsible for resistance. The amphotericin B resistant parasites become hypersensitive to pentamidine and also agents that induce oxidative stress. This work reveals the power of combining polyomics approaches, to discover the mechanism underlying drug resistance as well as offering novel insights into the selection of resistance to amphotericin B itself

    Genomic assessment of quarantine measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 importation and transmission

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    Mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 transmission from international travel is a priority. We evaluated the effectiveness of travellers being required to quarantine for 14-days on return to England in Summer 2020. We identified 4,207 travel-related SARS-CoV-2 cases and their contacts, and identified 827 associated SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Overall, quarantine was associated with a lower rate of contacts, and the impact of quarantine was greatest in the 16–20 age-group. 186 SARS-CoV-2 genomes were sufficiently unique to identify travel-related clusters. Fewer genomically-linked cases were observed for index cases who returned from countries with quarantine requirement compared to countries with no quarantine requirement. This difference was explained by fewer importation events per identified genome for these cases, as opposed to fewer onward contacts per case. Overall, our study demonstrates that a 14-day quarantine period reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the onward transmission of imported cases, mainly by dissuading travel to countries with a quarantine requirement
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