49 research outputs found

    Forbidden transitions in the helium atom

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    Nonrelativistically forbidden, single-photon transition rates between low lying states of the helium atom are rigorously derived within quantum electrodynamics theory. Equivalence of velocity and length gauges, including relativistic corrections is explicitly demonstrated. Numerical calculations of matrix elements are performed with the use of high precision variational wave functions and compared to former results.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Asymptotic Energies and QED Shifts for Rydberg States of Helium

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    This paper reviews progress that has been made in obtaining essentially exact solutions to the nonrelativistic three-body problem for helium by a combination of variational and asymptotic expansion methods. The calculation of relativistic and quantum electrodynamic corrections by perturbation theory is discussed, and in particular, methods for the accurate calculation of the Bethe logarithm part of the electron self energy are presented. As an example, the results are applied to the calculation of isotope shifts for the short-lived 'halo' nucleus He-6 relative to He-4 in order to determine the nuclear charge radius of He-6 from high precision spectroscopic measurements carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory. The results demonstrate that the high precision that is now available from atomic theory is creating new opportunities to create novel measurement tools, and helium, along with hydrogen, can be regarded as a fundamental atomic system whose spectrum is well understood for all practical purposes

    Two-photon E1M1 decay of 2 3P0 states in heavy heliumlike ions

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    Two-photon E1M1 transition rates are evaluated for heliumlike ions with nuclear charges in the range Z = 50-94. The two-photon rates modify previously published lifetimes/transition rates of 2 3P0 states. For isotopes with nuclear spin I not equal 0, where hyperfine quenching dominates the 2 3P0 decay, two-photon contributions are significant; for example, in heliumlike 187 Os the two-photon correction is 3% of the total rate. For isotopes with I= 0, where the 2 3P0 decay is unquenched, the E1M1 corrections are even more important reaching 60% for Z=94. Therefore, to aid in the interpretation of experiments on hyperfine quenching in heliumlike ions and to provide a more complete database for unquenched transitions, a knowledge of E1M1 rates is important.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures, 3 table

    Radiative Corrections to One-Photon Decays of Hydrogenic Ions

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    Radiative corrections to the decay rate of n=2 states of hydrogenic ions are calculated. The transitions considered are the M1 decay of the 2s state to the ground state and the E1(M2) decays of the 2p1/22p_{1/2} and 2p3/22p_{3/2} states to the ground state. The radiative corrections start in order α(Zα)2\alpha (Z \alpha)^2, but the method used sums all orders of ZαZ\alpha. The leading α(Zα)2\alpha (Z\alpha)^2 correction for the E1 decays is calculated and compared with the exact result. The extension of the calculational method to parity nonconserving transitions in neutral atoms is discussed.Comment: 22 pages, 2 figure

    Search for Possible Variation of the Fine Structure Constant

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    Determination of the fine structure constant alpha and search for its possible variation are considered. We focus on a role of the fine structure constant in modern physics and discuss precision tests of quantum electrodynamics. Different methods of a search for possible variations of fundamental constants are compared and those related to optical measurements are considered in detail.Comment: An invited talk at HYPER symposium (Paris, 2002

    Independent Eigenstates of Angular Momentum in a Quantum N-body System

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    The global rotational degrees of freedom in the Schr\"{o}dinger equation for an NN-body system are completely separated from the internal ones. After removing the motion of center of mass, we find a complete set of (2ℓ+1)(2\ell+1) independent base functions with the angular momentum ℓ\ell. These are homogeneous polynomials in the components of the coordinate vectors and the solutions of the Laplace equation, where the Euler angles do not appear explicitly. Any function with given angular momentum and given parity in the system can be expanded with respect to the base functions, where the coefficients are the functions of the internal variables. With the right choice of the base functions and the internal variables, we explicitly establish the equations for those functions. Only (3N-6) internal variables are involved both in the functions and in the equations. The permutation symmetry of the wave functions for identical particles is discussed.Comment: 24 pages, no figure, one Table, RevTex, Will be published in Phys. Rev. A 64, 0421xx (Oct. 2001

    Extension of the sum rule for the transition rates between multiplets to the multiphoton case

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    The sum rule for the transition rates between the components of two multiplets, known for the one-photon transitions, is extended to the multiphoton transitions in hydrogen and hydrogen-like ions. As an example the transitions 3p-2p, 4p-3p and 4d-3d are considered. The numerical results are compared with previous calculations.Comment: 10 pages, 4 table

    Majorana solutions to the two-electron problem

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    A review of the known different methods and results devised to study the two-electron atom problem, appeared in the early years of quantum mechanics, is given, with particular reference to the calculations of the ground state energy of helium. This is supplemented by several, unpublished results obtained around the same years by Ettore Majorana, which results did not convey in his published papers on the argument, and thus remained unknown until now. Particularly interesting, even for current research in atomic and nuclear physics, is a general variant of the variational method, developed by Majorana in order to take directly into account, already in the trial wavefunction, the action of the full Hamiltonian operator of a given quantum system. Moreover, notable calculations specialized to the study of the two-electron problem show the introduction of the remarkable concept of an effective nuclear charge different for the two electrons (thus generalizing previous known results), and an application of the perturbative method, where the atomic number Z was treated effectively as a continuous variable, contributions to the ground state energy of an atom with given Z coming also from any other Z. Instead, contributions relevant mainly for pedagogical reasons count simple broad range estimates of the helium ionization potential, obtained by suitable choices for the wavefunction, as well as a simple alternative to Hylleraas' method, which led Majorana to first order calculations comparable in accuracy with well-known order 11 results derived, in turn, by Hylleraas.Comment: amsart, 20 pages, no figure

    Entanglement in helium

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    Using a configuration-interaction variational method, we accurately compute the reduced, single-electron von Neumann entropy for several low-energy, singlet and triplet eigenstates of helium atom. We estimate the amount of electron-electron orbital entanglement for such eigenstates and show that it decays with energy.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, added references and discussio
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