246 research outputs found

    The Search for Supernova-produced Radionuclides in Terrestrial Deep-sea Archives

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    An enhanced concentration of 60Fe was found in a deep ocean's crust in 2004 in a layer corresponding to an age of ~2 Myr. The confirmation of this signal in terrestrial archives as supernova-induced and detection of other supernova-produced radionuclides is of great interest. We have identified two suitable marine sediment cores from the South Australian Basin and estimated the intensity of a possible signal of the supernova-produced radionuclides 26Al, 53Mn, 60Fe and the pure r-process element 244Pu in these cores. A finding of these radionuclides in a sediment core might allow to improve the time resolution of the signal and thus to link the signal to a supernova event in the solar vicinity ~2 Myr ago. Furthermore, it gives an insight on nucleosynthesis scenarios in massive stars, the condensation into dust grains and transport mechanisms from the supernova shell into the solar system

    41Ca in tooth enamel. part I: A biological signature of neutron exposure in atomic bomb survivors

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    The detection of 41Ca atoms in tooth enamel using accelerator mass spectrometry is suggested as a method capable of reconstructing thermal neutron exposures from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In general, 41Ca atoms are produced via thermal neutron capture by stable 40Ca. Thus any 41Ca atoms present in the tooth enamel of the survivors would be due to neutron exposure from both natural sources and radiation from the bomb. Tooth samples from five survivors in a control group with negligible neutron exposure were used to investigate the natural 41Ca content in tooth enamel, and 16 tooth samples from 13 survivors were used to estimate bomb-related neutron exposure. The results showed that the mean 41Ca/Ca isotope ratio was (0.17 ± 0.05) × 10-14 in the control samples and increased to 2 × 10-14 for survivors who were proximally exposed to the bomb. The 41Ca/Ca ratios showed an inverse correlation with distance from the hypocenter at the time of the bombing, similar to values that have been derived from theoretical free-in-air thermal-neutron transport calculations. Given that γ-ray doses were determined earlier for the same tooth samples by means of electron spin resonance (ESR, or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), these results can serve to validate neutron exposures that were calculated individually for the survivors but that had to incorporate a number of assumptions (e.g. shielding conditions for the survivors).Fil: Wallner, A.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; Alemania. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Universidad de Viena; AustriaFil: Ruhm, W.. Helmholtz Center Munich German Research Center For Environmental Health; Alemania. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Rugel, G.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; Alemania. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; AlemaniaFil: Nakamura, N.. Radiation Effects Research Foundation; JapónFil: Arazi, Andres. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Faestermann, T.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; AlemaniaFil: Knie, K.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Maier, H. J.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Korschinek, G.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemani

    AMS measurements of cosmogenic and supernova-ejected radionuclides in deep-sea sediment cores

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    Samples of two deep-sea sediment cores from the Indian Ocean are analyzed with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to search for traces of recent supernova activity around 2 Myr ago. Here, long-lived radionuclides, which are synthesized in massive stars and ejected in supernova explosions, namely 26Al, 53Mn and 60Fe, are extracted from the sediment samples. The cosmogenic isotope 10Be, which is mainly produced in the Earths atmosphere, is analyzed for dating purposes of the marine sediment cores. The first AMS measurement results for 10Be and 26Al are presented, which represent for the first time a detailed study in the time period of 1.7-3.1 Myr with high time resolution. Our first results do not support a significant extraterrestrial signal of 26Al above terrestrial background. However, there is evidence that, like 10Be, 26Al might be a valuable isotope for dating of deep-sea sediment cores for the past few million years.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, Proceedings of the Heavy Ion Accelerator Symposium on Fundamental and Applied Science, 2013, will be published by the EPJ Web of conference

    Search for supernova-produced 60Fe in a marine sediment

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    An 60Fe peak in a deep-sea FeMn crust has been interpreted as due to the signature left by the ejecta of a supernova explosion close to the solar system 2.8 +/- 0.4 Myr ago [Knie et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 171103 (2004)]. To confirm this interpretation with better time resolution and obtain a more direct flux estimate, we measured 60Fe concentrations along a dated marine sediment. We find no 60Fe peak at the expected level from 1.7 to 3.2 Myr ago. However, applying the same chemistry used for the sediment, we confirm the 60Fe signal in the FeMn crust. The cause of the discrepancy is discussed.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figures, submitted to PR

    First Measurement of the 64Ni(gamma,n)63Ni Cross Section

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    Copyright owned by the author(s) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-ShareAlike LicenceIn the past 10 years new and more accurate stellar neutron capture cross section measurements have changed and improved the abundance predictions of the weak s process. Among other elements in the region between iron and strontium, most of the copper abundance observed today in the solar system distribution was produced by the s process in massive stars. However, experimental data for the stellar 63Ni(n,gamma)64Ni cross section are still missing, but is strongly required for a reliable prediction of the copper abundances. 63Ni (t1/2 =101.2 a) is a branching point and also bottleneck in the weak s process flow, and abehaves differently during core He and shell C burning. During core He burning the reaction flow proceeds via beta-decay to 63Cu, and a change of the 63Ni(n,gamma)64Ni cross section would have no influence. However, this behavior changes at higher temperatures and neutron densities during the shell C burning phase. Under these conditions, a significant amount of the s process nucleosynthesis flow is passing through the channel 62Ni(n,gamma)63Ni(n,gamma)64Ni. At present only theoretical estimates are available for the 63Ni(n,gamma)64Ni cross section. The corresponding uncertainty affects the production of 63Cu in present s process nucleosynthesis calculations and propagates to the abundances of the heavier species up to A=70. So far, experimental information is also missing for the inverse 64Ni(gamma,n) channel. We have measured for the first time the 64Ni(gamma,n)63Ni cross section and also combined for the first time successfully the photoactivation technique with subsequent Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The activations at the ELBE facility in Dresden-Rossendorf were followed by the 63Ni/64Ni determination with AMS at the MLL accelerator laboratory in Garching. First results indicate that theoretical predictions have overestimated this cross section up to now. If this also holds for the inverse channel 63Ni(n,gamma)64Ni, more 63Ni is accumulated during the high neutron density regime of the C shell that will contribute to the final abundance of 63Cu by radiogenic decay. In this case, also a lower s process efficiency is expected for the heavier species along the neutron capture path up to the Ga-Ge regio

    Solving the stellar 62Ni problem with AMS

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    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross sections of 62,63Ni is crucial since both isotopes take key positions which affect the whole reaction flow in the weak s process up to A=90. No experimental value for the 63Ni(n,gamma) cross section exists so far, and until recently the experimental values for 62Ni(n,gamma) at stellar temperatures (kT=30 keV) ranged between 12 and 37 mb. This latter discrepancy could now be solved by two activations with following AMS using the GAMS setup at the Munich tandem accelerator which are also in perfect agreement with a recent time-of-flight measurement. The resulting (preliminary) Maxwellian cross section at kT=30 keV was determined to be 30keV = 23.4 +/- 4.6 mb. Additionally, we have measured the 64Ni(gamma,n)63Ni cross section close to threshold. Photoactivations at 13.5 MeV, 11.4 MeV and 10.3 MeV were carried out with the ELBE accelerator at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. A first AMS measurement of the sample activated at 13.5 MeV revealed a cross section smaller by more than a factor of 2 compared to NON-SMOKER predictions.Comment: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry in Rome, Sept. 14-19, 2008; to be published in Nucl. Instr. Meth.

    The 63^{63}Ni(n,γ\gamma) cross section measured with DANCE

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    The neutron capture cross section of the s-process branch nucleus 63^{63}Ni affects the abundances of other nuclei in its region, especially 63^{63}Cu and 64^{64}Zn. In order to determine the energy dependent neutron capture cross section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed using the calorimetric 4π\pi BaF2_2 array DANCE. The (n,γ\gamma) cross section of 63^{63}Ni has been determined relative to the well known 197^{197}Au standard with uncertainties below 15%. Various 63^{63}Ni resonances have been identified based on the Q-value. Furthermore, the s-process sensitivity of the new values was analyzed with the new network calculation tool NETZ.Comment: 11 pages, 13 page

    Application of the accelerator mass spectrometry technique to the study of the marine sediments dynamics

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    Utilizando la técnica de Espectrometría de Masas con Aceleradores se ha determinado la relación entre el radionucleido 10Be (T½ = 1,39 Ma) y su isótopo estable 9Be en siete muestras de sedimentos submarinos. Estas muestras, con relaciones isotópicas 10Be/9Be del orden de 10^-8, constituyen un primer perfil de 275 m de profundidad cercano al punto de contacto entre las placas tectónicas de Nazca, Antártica y Sudamericana. Debido al decaimiento del 10Be, su concentración disminuye con la edad del sedimento, la cual se espera que aumente linealmente con la profundidad. Sin embargo, en este trabajo se encontraron aumentos en la concentración de 10Be entre los 100 y 150 metros y entre los 200 y 250 metros de profundidad. Este resultado es consistente con un proceso de plegamiento de los sedimentos provocado por la subducción de la placa tectónica de Nazca.Using the accelerator mass spectrometry technique, the ratio between the radionuclide 10Be (T½ = 1.39 Ma) and its stable isotope 9 Be in seven submarine sediment samples has been determined. These samples, with 10Be/9 Be isotopic ratios of the order of 10-8, constitute a first 275 m-deep profile near the point where Nazca, Antarctica and South American tectonic plates join each other. Due to the decay of 10Be, its concentration decreases with the age of the sediment, which is expected to increase linearly with the depth. However, in this study we found increments in the 10Be concentration between 100 and 150 meters and between 200 and 250 meters of depth. This result is consistent with a sediments plication process produced by subduction of the Nazca tectonic plate.Fil: Rodrigues Ferreira Maltez, Dario Pablo. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Gerencia del Área de Investigación y Aplicaciones No Nucleares. Gerencia Física (Centro Atómico Constituyentes). Proyecto Tandar; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Korschinek, G.. Technische Universitat München; AlemaniaFil: Merchel, S.. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf; AlemaniaFil: Rugel, G.. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf; AlemaniaFil: Arazi, Andres. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; Argentina. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Gerencia del Área de Investigación y Aplicaciones No Nucleares. Gerencia Física (Centro Atómico Constituyentes). Proyecto Tandar; ArgentinaFil: Martí, Guillermo Virginio. Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Gerencia del Área de Investigación y Aplicaciones No Nucleares. Gerencia Física (Centro Atómico Constituyentes). Proyecto Tandar; Argentin
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