938 research outputs found

### Hall state quantization in a rotating frame

We derive electromagnetomotive force fields for charged particles moving in a
rotating Hall sample, satisfying a twofold U(1) gauge invariance principle. It
is then argued that the phase coherence property of quantization of the line
integral of total collective particle momentum into multiples of Planck's
quantum of action is solely responsible for quantization in the Hall state. As
a consequence, the height of the Hall quantization steps should remain
invariant in a rapidly rotating Hall probe. Quantum Hall particle
conductivities do not depend on charge and mass of the electron, and are
quantized in units of the inverse of Planck's action quantum.Comment: 6 pages, accepted for publication in Europhysics Letter

### Direct measurement of diurnal polar motion by ring laser gyroscopes

We report the first direct measurements of the very small effect of forced
diurnal polar motion, successfully observed on three of our large ring lasers,
which now measure the instantaneous direction of Earth's rotation axis to a
precision of 1 part in 10^8 when averaged over a time interval of several
hours. Ring laser gyroscopes provide a new viable technique for directly and
continuously measuring the position of the instantaneous rotation axis of the
Earth and the amplitudes of the Oppolzer modes. In contrast, the space geodetic
techniques (VLBI, SLR, GPS, etc.) contain no information about the position of
the instantaneous axis of rotation of the Earth, but are sensitive to the
complete transformation matrix between the Earth-fixed and inertial reference
frame. Further improvements of gyroscopes will provide a powerful new tool for
studying the Earth's interior.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, agu2001.cl

### Entanglement requirements for implementing bipartite unitary operations

We prove, using a new method based on map-state duality, lower bounds on
entanglement resources needed to deterministically implement a bipartite
unitary using separable (SEP) operations, which include LOCC (local operations
and classical communication) as a particular case. It is known that the Schmidt
rank of an entangled pure state resource cannot be less than the Schmidt rank
of the unitary. We prove that if these ranks are equal the resource must be
uniformly (maximally) entangled: equal nonzero Schmidt coefficients. Higher
rank resources can have less entanglement: we have found numerical examples of
Schmidt rank 2 unitaries which can be deterministically implemented, by either
SEP or LOCC, using an entangled resource of two qutrits with less than one ebit
of entanglement.Comment: 7 pages Revte

### Gravitomagnetism, clocks and geometry

New techniques to evaluate the clock effect using light are described. These
are based on the flatness of the cylindrical surface containing the world lines
of the rays constrained to move on circular trajectories about a spinning mass.
The effect of the angular momentum of the source is manifested in the fact that
inertial observers must be replaced by local non rotating observers. Starting
from this an exact formula for circular trajectories is found. Numerical
estimates for the Earth environment show that light would be a better probe
than actual clocks to evidence the angular momentum influence. The advantages
of light in connection with some principle experiments are shortly reviewed.Comment: TCI Latex, 12 pages, 2 figures. To appear in European Journal of
Physic

### Electro-optic response in isotropic media

A formal proof has recently been given to show that an electro-optic response of chiral molecules in isotropic media is forbidden by time reversal invariance. A claim to the contrary by Beljonne et al. for the occurrence of such an effect in second order, when dephasing terms are included, is examined critically using a quantum electrodynamics (QED) formulation

### Little groups of irreps of O(3), SO(3), and the infinite axial subgroups

Little groups are enumerated for the irreps and their components in any basis
of O(3) and SO(3) up to rank 9, and for all irreps of C$_{\infty}$, C$_{\infty
h}$, C$_{\infty v}$, D$_{\infty}$ and D$_{\infty h}$. The results are obtained
by a new chain criterion, which distinguishes massive (rotationally
inequivalent) irrep basis functions and allows for multiple branching paths,
and are verified by inspection. These results are relevant to the determination
of the symmetry of a material from its linear and nonlinear optical properties
and to the choices of order parameters for symmetry breaking in liquid
crystals.Comment: 28 pages and 3 figure

### Detection of the gravitomagnetic clock effect

The essence of the gravitomagnetic clock effect is properly defined showing
that its origin is in the topology of world lines with closed space
projections. It is shown that, in weak field approximation and for a
spherically symmetric central body, the loss of synchrony between two clocks
counter-rotating along a circular geodesic is proportional to the angular
momentum of the source of the gravitational field. Numerical estimates are
presented for objects within the solar system. The less unfavorable situation
is found around Jupiter.Comment: 14 pages; Latex. To be published on Classical and Quantum Gravit

### A 1.82 m^2 ring laser gyroscope for nano-rotational motion sensing

We present a fully active-controlled He-Ne ring laser gyroscope, operating in
square cavity 1.35 m in side. The apparatus is designed to provide a very low
mechanical and thermal drift of the ring cavity geometry and is conceived to be
operative in two different orientations of the laser plane, in order to detect
rotations around the vertical or the horizontal direction. Since June 2010 the
system is active inside the Virgo interferometer central area with the aim of
performing high sensitivity measurements of environmental rotational noise. So
far, continuous not attempted operation of the gyroscope has been longer than
30 days. The main characteristics of the laser, the active remote-controlled
stabilization systems and the data acquisition techniques are presented. An
off-line data processing, supported by a simple model of the sensor, is shown
to improve the effective long term stability. A rotational sensitivity at the
level of ten nanoradiants per squareroot of Hz below 1 Hz, very close to the
required specification for the improvement of the Virgo suspension control
system, is demonstrated for the configuration where the laser plane is
horizontal

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