14,532 research outputs found

    Elasticity of Stiff Polymer Networks

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    We study the elasticity of a two-dimensional random network of rigid rods (``Mikado model''). The essential features incorporated into the model are the anisotropic elasticity of the rods and the random geometry of the network. We show that there are three distinct scaling regimes, characterized by two distinct length scales on the elastic backbone. In addition to a critical rigidiy percolation region and a homogeneously elastic regime we find a novel intermediate scaling regime, where elasticity is dominated by bending deformations.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Fundamental and harmonic emission in interplanetary type 2 radio bursts

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    Three interplanetary type II radio bursts which show two prominent and long duration bands in their dynamic spectra were analyzed in detail and compared to similar bands in meter wavelength type II events. These bands, which differ by a factor of about two in frequency, were interpreted in terms of fundamental and harmonic emission. The fundamental component has a greater average intensity than the harmonic, due largely to short intense brightenings. The fundamental spectral profile is more narrow than that of the harmonic, with harmonic band typically exhibiting a larger bandwidth to frequency ratio than the fundamental by a factor of two. The fundamental has a larger source size than the harmonic, 160 degrees versus 110 degrees, on average, as viewed from the Sun. Two of the events have source positions which correlate well with the associated flare positions

    The use of happiness research for public policy

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    Research on happiness tends to follow a "benevolent dictator" approach where politicians pursue people's happiness. This paper takes an antithetic approach based on the insights of public choice theory. First, we inquire how the results of happiness research may be used to improve the choice of institutions. Second, we show that the policy approach matters for the choice of research questions and the kind of knowledge happiness research aims to provide. Third, we emphasize that there is no shortcut to an optimal policy maximizing some happiness indicator or social welfare function since governments have an incentive to manipulate this indicator

    Chemistry by Mobile Phone (or how to justify more time at the bar)

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    By combining automatic environment monitoring with Java smartphones a system has been produced for the real-time monitoring of experiments whilst away from the lab. Changes in the laboratory environment are encapsulated as simple XML messages, which are published using an MQTT compliant broker. Clients subscribe to the MQTT stream, and produce a user display. An MQTT client written for the Java MIDP platform, can be run on a smartphone with a GPRS Internet connection, freeing us from the constraints of the lab. We present an overview of the technologies used, and how these are helping chemists make the best use of their time

    Warped Kaluza-Klein Dark Matter

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    Warped compactifications of type IIB string theory contain natural dark matter candidates: Kaluza-Klein modes along approximate isometry directions of long warped throats. These isometries are broken by the full compactification, including moduli stabilization; we present a thorough survey of Kaluza-Klein mode decay rates into light supergravity modes and Standard Model particles. We find that these dark matter candidates typically have lifetimes longer than the age of the universe. Interestingly, some choices for embedding the Standard Model in the compactification lead to decay rates large enough to be observed, so this dark matter sector may provide constraints on the parameter space of the compactification.Comment: 37pp; v2. references, minor clarificatio

    Tension dynamics in semiflexible polymers. Part I: Coarse-grained equations of motion

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    Based on the wormlike chain model, a coarse-grained description of the nonlinear dynamics of a weakly bending semiflexible polymer is developed. By means of a multiple scale perturbation analysis, a length-scale separation inherent to the weakly-bending limit is exploited to reveal the deterministic nature of the spatio-temporal relaxation of the backbone tension and to deduce the corresponding coarse-grained equation of motion. From this partial integro-differential equation, some detailed analytical predictions for the non-linear response of a weakly bending polymer are derived in an accompanying paper (Part II, cond-mat/0609638).Comment: 14 pages, 4 figyres. The second part of this article has the preprint no.: cond-mat/060963

    Traffic jams induced by rare switching events in two-lane transport

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    We investigate a model for driven exclusion processes where internal states are assigned to the particles. The latter account for diverse situations, ranging from spin states in spintronics to parallel lanes in intracellular or vehicular traffic. Introducing a coupling between the internal states by allowing particles to switch from one to another induces an intriguing polarization phenomenon. In a mesoscopic scaling, a rich stationary regime for the density profiles is discovered, with localized domain walls in the density profile of one of the internal states being feasible. We derive the shape of the density profiles as well as resulting phase diagrams analytically by a mean-field approximation and a continuum limit. Continuous as well as discontinuous lines of phase transition emerge, their intersections induce multi-critical behaviour

    Conformations of confined biopolymers

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    Nanoscale and microscale confinement of biopolymers naturally occurs in cells and has been recently achieved in artificial structures designed for nanotechnological applications. Here, we present an extensive theoretical investigation of the conformations and shape of a biopolymer with varying stiffness confined to a narrow channel. Combining scaling arguments, analytical calculations, and Monte Carlo simulations, we identify various scaling regimes where master curves quantify the functional dependence of the polymer conformations on the chain stiffness and strength of confinement.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, minor correction

    Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem for the Microcanonical Ensemble

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    A derivation of the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem for the microcanonical ensemble is presented using linear response theory. The theorem is stated as a relation between the frequency spectra of the symmetric correlation and response functions. When the system is not in the thermodinamic limit, this result can be viewed as an extension of the fluctuation-dissipation relations to a situation where dynamical fluctuations determine the response. Therefore, the relation presented here between equilibrium fluctuations and response can have a very different physical nature from the usual one in the canonical ensemble. These considerations imply that the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem is not restricted to the context of thermal equilibrium, where it is usually derived. Dispersion relations and sum rules are also obtained and discussed in the present case. Although analogous to the Kramers-Kronig relations, they are not related to the frequency spectrum but to the energy dependence of the response function.Comment: 15 pages, v3: final version, new text added, new reference

    Predictions of the causal entropic principle for environmental conditions of the universe

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    The causal entropic principle has been proposed as a superior alternative to the anthropic principle for understanding the magnitude of the cosmological constant. In this approach, the probability to create observers is assumed to be proportional to the entropy production \Delta S in a maximal causally connected region -- the causal diamond. We improve on the original treatment by better quantifying the entropy production due to stars, using an analytic model for the star formation history which accurately accounts for changes in cosmological parameters. We calculate the dependence of \Delta S on the density contrast Q=\delta\rho/\rho, and find that our universe is much closer to the most probable value of Q than in the usual anthropic approach and that probabilities are relatively weakly dependent on this amplitude. In addition, we make first estimates of the dependence of \Delta S on the baryon fraction and overall matter abundance. Finally, we also explore the possibility that decays of dark matter, suggested by various observed gamma ray excesses, might produce a comparable amount of entropy to stars.Comment: RevTeX4, 13pp, 10 figures; v2. clarified introduction, added ref