1,193 research outputs found

### Topological aspects in non-Abelian gauge theory

We discuss the BRST cohomology and exhibit a connection between the Hodge
decomposition theorem and the topological properties of a two dimensional free
non-Abelian gauge theory having no interaction with matter fields. The
topological nature of this theory is encoded in the vanishing of the Laplacian
operator when equations of motion are exploited. We obtain two sets of
topological invariants with respect to BRST and co-BRST charges on the two
dimensional manifold and show that the Lagrangian density of the theory can be
expressed as the sum of terms that are BRST- and co-BRST invariants.Comment: (1+11) pages, LaTeX, no figure

### Estimating European volatile organic compound emissions using satellite observations of formaldehyde from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

Emission of non-methane Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere
stems from biogenic and human activities, and their estimation is difficult
because of the many and not fully understood processes involved. In order to
narrow down the uncertainty related to VOC emissions, which negatively
reflects on our ability to simulate the atmospheric composition, we exploit
satellite observations of formaldehyde (HCHO), an ubiquitous oxidation
product of most VOCs, focusing on Europe. HCHO column observations from the
Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) reveal a marked seasonal cycle with a
summer maximum and winter minimum. In summer, the oxidation of methane and
other long-lived VOCs supply a slowly varying background HCHO column, while
HCHO variability is dominated by most reactive VOC, primarily biogenic
isoprene followed in importance by biogenic terpenes and anthropogenic VOCs.
The chemistry-transport model CHIMERE qualitatively reproduces the temporal
and spatial features of the observed HCHO column, but display regional
biases which are attributed mainly to incorrect biogenic VOC emissions,
calculated with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosol from Nature
(MEGAN) algorithm. These "bottom-up" or a-priori emissions are corrected
through a
Bayesian inversion of the OMI HCHO observations. Resulting "top-down" or
a-posteriori isoprene emissions are lower than "bottom-up" by 40% over
the Balkans
and by 20% over Southern Germany, and higher by 20% over Iberian
Peninsula, Greece and Italy.
We conclude that OMI
satellite observations of HCHO can provide a quantitative "top-down"
constraint on the European "bottom-up" VOC inventories

### Superfield approach to a novel symmetry for non-Abelian gauge theory

In the framework of superfield formalism, we demonstrate the existence of a
new local, covariant, continuous and nilpotent (dual-BRST) symmetry for the
BRST invariant Lagrangian density of a self-interacting two ($1 +
1$)-dimensional (2D) non-Abelian gauge theory (having no interaction with
matter fields). The local and nilpotent Noether conserved charges corresponding
to the above continuous symmetries find their geometrical interpretation as the
translation generators along the odd (Grassmannian) directions of the four ($2
+ 2)$-dimensional supermanifold.Comment: LaTeX, 12 pages, equations (4.2)--(4.6) correcte

### Superfield Approach To Nilpotent Symmetries For QED From A Single Restriction: An Alternative To The Horizontality Condition

We derive together the exact local, covariant, continuous and off-shell
nilpotent Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry
transformations for the U(1) gauge field (A_\mu), the (anti-)ghost fields
((\bar C)C) and the Dirac fields (\psi, \bar\psi) of the Lagrangian density of
a four (3 + 1)-dimensional QED by exploiting a single restriction on the six
(4, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. A set of four even spacetime coordinates
x^\mu (\mu = 0, 1, 2, 3) and two odd Grassmannian variables \theta and
\bar\theta parametrize this six dimensional supermanifold. The new gauge
invariant restriction on the above supermanifold owes its origin to the (super)
covariant derivatives and their intimate relations with the (super) 2-form
curvatures (\tilde F^{(2)})F^{(2)} constructed with the help of (super) 1-form
gauge connections (\tilde A^{(1)})A^{(1)} and (super) exterior derivatives
(\tilde d)d. The results obtained separately by exploiting (i) the
horizontality condition, and (ii) one of its consistent extensions, are shown
to be a simple consequence of this new single restriction on the above
supermanifold. Thus, our present endeavour provides an alternative to (and, in
some sense, generalization of) the horizontality condition of the usual
superfield formalism applied to the derivation of BRST symmetries.Comment: LaTeX file, 15 pages, journal-versio

### The Volume Source Technique for flavor singlets: a second look

We reconsider the Volume Source Technique (VST) for the determination of
flavor singlet quantities on the lattice. We point out a difficulty arising in
the case of fermions in real representations of the gauge group and propose an
improved version of the method (IVST) based on random gauge transformations of
the background configuration. We compare the performance of IVST with the
method based on stochastic estimators (SET). We consider the case of the N=1
Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory (SYM), where just one fermionic flavor is
present, the gluino in the adjoint representation, and only flavor singlet
states are possible. The work is part of an inclusive analysis of the spectrum
of the lightest particles of the theory, based on the simulation of the model
on a $16^3\cdot32$ lattice with dynamical gluinos in the Wilson scheme.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, some formulations change

### Field dependent nilpotent symmetry for gauge theories

We construct the field dependent mixed BRST (combination of BRST and
anti-BRST) transformations for pure gauge theories. These are shown to be an
exact nilpotent symmetry of both the effective action as well as the generating
functional for certain choices of the field dependent parameters. We show that
the Jacobian contributions for path integral measure in the definition of
generating functional arising from BRST and anti-BRST part compensate each
other. The field dependent mixed BRST transformations are also considered in
field/antifield formulation to show that the solutions of quantum master
equation remain invariant under these. Our results are supported by several
explicit examples.Comment: 25 pages, No figures, Revte

### Limits on Lorentz Violation from the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

We place several new limits on Lorentz violating effects, which can modify
particles' dispersion relations, by considering the highest energy cosmic rays
observed. Since these are hadrons, this involves considering the partonic
content of such cosmic rays. We get a number of bounds on differences in
maximum propagation speeds, which are typically bounded at the 10^{-21} level,
and on momentum dependent dispersion corrections of the form v = 1 +-
p^2/Lambda^2, which typically bound Lambda > 10^{21} GeV, well above the Planck
scale. For (CPT violating) dispersion correction of the form v = 1 + p/Lambda,
the bounds are up to 15 orders of magnitude beyond the Planck scale.Comment: 24 pages, no figures. Added references, very slight changes. Version
published in Physical Review

### An important fingerprint of wildfires on the European aerosol load

Abstract. Wildland fires represent the major source of fine aerosols, i.e., atmospheric particles with diameters <1 μm. The largest numbers of these fires occur in Africa, Asia and South America, but a not negligible fraction also occurs in Eastern Europe and former USSR countries, particularly in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. Besides the impact of large forest fires, recent studies also highlighted the crucial role played by routine agricultural fires in Eastern Europe and Russia on the Arctic atmosphere. An evaluation of the impact of these fires over Europe is currently not available. The assessment of the relative contribution of fires to the European aerosol burden is hampered by the complex mixing of natural and anthropogenic particle types across the continent. In this study we use long term (2002–2007) satellite-based fires and aerosol data coupled to atmospheric trajectory modelling in the attempt to estimate the wildfires contribution to the European aerosol optical thickness (AOT). Based on this dataset, we provide evidence that fires-related aerosols play a major role in shaping the AOT yearly cycle at the continental scale. In general, the regions most impacted by wildfires emissions and/or transport are Eastern and Central Europe as well as Scandinavia. Conversely, a minor impact is found in Western Europe and in the Western Mediterranean. We estimate that in spring 5 to 35% of the European fine fraction AOT (FFAOT) is attributable to wildland fires. The estimated impact maximizes in April (20–35%) in Eastern and Central Europe as well as in Scandinavia and in the Central Mediterranean. An important contribution of wildfires to the FFAOT is also found in summer over most of the continent, particularly in August over Eastern Europe (28%) and the Mediterranean regions, from Turkey (34%) to the Western Mediterranean (25%). Although preliminary, our results suggest that this fires-related, continent-wide haze plays a not negligible role on the European radiation budget, and possibly, on the European air quality, therefore representing a clear target for mitigation

### Two loop effective potential for < A^2_\mu > in the Landau gauge in quantum chromodynamics

We construct the effective potential for the dimension two composite operator
1/2 A^{a 2}_\mu in QCD with massless quarks in the Landau gauge for an
arbitrary colour group at two loops. For SU(3) we show that an estimate for the
effective gluon mass decreases as N_f increases.Comment: 17 latex page

- …