2,347 research outputs found

    Steatosis, steatohepatitis and cancer immunotherapy: An intricate story

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    Immune checkpoint inhibitors represent one of the most significant recent advances in clinical oncology, since they dramatically improved the prognosis of deadly cancers such as melanomas and lung cancer. Treatment with these drugs may be complicated by the occurrence of clinically-relevant adverse drug reactions, most of which are immune-mediated, such as pneumonitis, colitis, endocrinopathies, nephritis, Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Drug-induced steatosis and steatohepatitis are not included among the typical forms of cancer immunotherapy-induced liver toxicity, which, instead, usually occurs as a panlobular hepatitis with prominent lymphocytic infiltrates. Nonetheless, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a risk factor for immunotherapy-induced hepatitis, and steatosis and steatohepatitis are frequently observed in this condition. In the present review we discuss how these pathology findings could be explained in the context of current models suggesting immune-mediated pathogenesis for steatohepatitis. We also review evidence suggesting that in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, the presence of steatosis or steatohepatitis could predict a poor therapeutic response to these agents. How these findings could fit with immune-mediated mechanisms of these liver diseases will also be discussed

    Findings from studies are congruent with obesity having a viral origin, but what about obesity-related nafld?

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    Infection has recently started receiving greater attention as an unusual causative/inducing factor of obesity. Indeed, the biological plausibility of infectobesity includes direct roles of some viruses to reprogram host metabolism toward a more lipogenic and adipogenic status. Furthermore, the probability that humans may exchange microbiota components (virome/virobiota) points out that the altered response of IFN and other cytokines, which surfaces as a central mechanism for adipogenesis and obesity-associated immune suppression, is due to the fact that gut microbiota uphold intrinsic IFN signaling. Last but not least, the adaptation of both host immune and metabolic system under persistent viral infections play a central role in these phenomena. We hereby discuss the possible link between adenovirus and obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The mechanisms of adenovirus-36 (Ad-36) involvement in hepatic steatosis/NAFLD consist in reducing leptin gene expression and insulin sensitivity, augmenting glucose uptake, activating the lipogenic and pro-inflammatory pathways in adipose tissue, and increasing the level of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, all of these ultimately leading to chronic inflammation and altered lipid metabolism. Moreover, by reducing leptin expression and secretion Ad-36 may have in turn an obesogenic effect through increased food intake or decreased energy expenditure via altered fat metabolism. Finally, Ad-36 is involved in upregulation of cAMP, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and p38 signaling pathways, downregulation of Wnt10b expression, increased expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 with consequential lipid accumulation

    ATLAS RPC Quality Assurance results at INFN Lecce

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    The main results of the quality assurance tests performed on the Resistive Plate Chamber used by the ATLAS experiment at LHC as muon trigger chambers are reported and discussed. Since July 2004, about 270 RPC units has been certified at INFN Lecce site and delivered to CERN, for being integrated in the final muon station of the ATLAS barrel region. We show the key RPC characteristics which qualify the performance of this detector technology as muon trigger chamber in the harsh LHC enviroments. These are dark current, chamber efficiency, noise rate, gas volume tomography, and gas leakage.Comment: Comments: 6 pages, 1 table, 9 figures Proceedings of XXV Physics in Collision-Prague, Czech Republic, 6-9 July 200

    The ECAPS Experiment for Solar Cell Characterization in the Stratosphere

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    The ECAPS project (Experimental Characterization of Advanced Photovoltaics in the Stratosphere) aims at the characterization of performance of a number of different solar cells in the stratospheric environment. ECAPS has been selected to fly as a zero-pressure balloon payload in the frame of the HEMERA H2020 project. Flight is scheduled for August 2022 from CNES’ base in Timmins, Canada. Testing solar cells in the stratosphere is of great interest for the development of High-Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS) platforms, which will be equipped with high efficiency, flexible solar cells capable to operate at 20-30 km altitude for weeks or months, as well as to perform high-quality calibration of spacecraft solar cells in a near-air mass zero environment. The experiment includes a panel with up to 4 solar cells of different kinds (multi-junction GaAs, CIGS, perovskite, etc.), a dedicated I/V curve recording circuit, temperature and irradiance sensors, and an inertial measurement unit to monitor the instantaneous attitude of the gondola. During the ascent part of the flight, the I/V characteristic curves of the cells will be continuously recorded so to allow for comparison of performance of the different photovoltaic technologies in identical, real stratospheric flight conditions, as well as to detect performance changes with external temperature, irradiance and altitude. Upon recovery of the experiment, post-flight inspection will also yield useful information on the solar cell compatibility with the high altitude environment

    ATLAS RPC Cosmic Ray Teststand at INFN Lecce

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    We describe the design and functionality of the cosmic ray teststand built at INFN Lecce for ATLAS RPC quality control assurance.Comment: XXIV Physics in Collisions Conference (PIC04), Boston, USA, June 2004, 3 pages, LaTex, 2 eps figures. MONP0

    Effects of Nordic Walking Training on Anthropometric, Body Composition and Functional Parameters in the Middle-Aged Population

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    Nordic walking (NW) is an easy physical exercise that is usually proposed for clinical populations and for the elderly. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a period of NW training in a non-clinical middle-aged population on anthropometric, body composition and functional parameters. A pre-test/post-test study design was conducted on 77 participants: 56 women (72.7%, age 55.53 ± 9.73 years) and 21 men (27.3%, age 60.51 ± 8.15 years). The measurements were carried out with physical tests at the baseline and at the follow up. Participants did two weekly NW training sessions of about 60 min each. A questionnaire was administered to evaluate their feelings after the training period. Paired Students’ test was carried out to evaluate the pre–post differences, and the analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the questionnaire. Participants had significantly less stress and anxiety after the NW training. Body fat parameters showed a significant decrease, especially for women. Phase angle and strength of lower body presented a significant increase in both sexes after the training period. In conclusion, NW shows many potential benefits also for the nonclinical population and could be an important exercise to remain active and to maintain a good health condition

    6D physical interaction with a fully actuated aerial robot

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    This paper presents the design, control, and experimental validation of a novel fully-actuated aerial robot for physically interactive tasks, named Tilt-Hex. We show how the Tilt-Hex, a tilted-propeller hexarotor is able to control the full pose (position and orientation independently) using a geometric control, and to exert a full-wrench (force and torque independently) with a rigidly attached end-effector using an admittance control paradigm. An outer loop control governs the desired admittance behavior and an inner loop based on geometric control ensures pose tracking. The interaction forces are estimated by a momentum based observer. Control and observation are made possible by a precise control and measurement of the speed of each propeller. An extensive experimental campaign shows that the Tilt-Hex is able to outperform the classical underactuated multi-rotors in terms of stability, accuracy and dexterity and represent one of the best choice at date for tasks requiring aerial physical interaction

    The impact of fluid loss and carbohydrate consumption during exercise, on young cyclists’ fatigue perception in relation to training load level

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    High-level young athletes need to face a wide spectrum of stressors on their journey to élite categories. The aims of the present study are (i) to evaluate session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) at different training impulse (TRIMP) categories and the correlations between these two variables and, (ii) evaluate the correlations between sRPE, fluid loss, and carbohydrate consumption during exercise. Data on Edward’s TRIMP, sRPE, body mass loss pre-and post-exercise (∆), and carbohydrate consumption (CHO/h) during exercise have been acquired from eight male junior cyclists during a competitive season. One-way ANOVA and correlation analysis with linear regression have been performed on acquired data. sRPE resulted in a significant difference in the three TRIMP categories (p < 0.001). sRPE resulted in being very largely positively associated with TRIMP values (p < 0.001; R = 0.71). ∆ as well as CHO/h was largely negatively related with sRPE in all TRIMP categories (p < 0.001). The results confirmed the role of fluid balance and carbohydrate consumption on the perception of fatigue and fatigue accumulation dynamics independently from the training load. Young athletes’ training load monitoring and nutritional-hydration support represent important aspects in athlete’s exercise-induced fatigue management
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