9,754 research outputs found

    The design and investigation of the self-assembly of dimers with two nematic phases

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    A series of non-symmetric dimers were synthesised containing either cyanobiphenyl or difluoroterphenyl moieties on one side and a range of long, short, bent, polar or apolar mesogens on the other side of the molecules. The dielectric anisotropy of the mesogens was varied systematically. The systems were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical polarizing microscopy (OPM) and detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, both in the nematic and the Nx phase. The results are compared and structure properties relationships are discussed. A model for the assembly in the Nx phase is developed discussing Ntb structures, coaxial helices, swiss roll structures and chiral domain formation

    The stabilisation of the Nx phase in mixtures

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    The phase behaviour of mixtures between two symmetric dimers, CBC9CB and the ether-linked analogue CBOC9OCB was investigated by Polarizing Optical Microscopy (POM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) studies. The dimeric constituents are fully miscible and the construction of a temperature-composition phase diagram reveals a surprising amplification of the stability of the Nx phase in compositions of up to 37 wt% of CBOC9OCB in CBC9CB. The origin for this enhancement of stability is discussed and an explanation based on chiral recognition is developed

    Applications of remote sensing to estuarine management

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    Projects for sewage outfall siting for pollution control in the lower Chesapeake Bay wetlands are reported. A dye-buoy/photogrammetry and remote sensing technique was employed to gather circulation data used in outfall siting. This technique is greatly favored over alternate methods because it is inexpensive, produces results quickly, and reveals Lagrangian current paths which are preferred in making siting decisions. Wetlands data were obtained by interpretation of color and color infrared photographic imagery from several altitudes. Historical sequences of photographs are shown that were used to document wetlands changes. Sequential infrared photography of inlet basins was employed to determine tidal prisms, which were input to mathematical models to be used by state agencies in pollution control. A direct and crucial link between remote sensing and management decisions was demonstrated in the various projects

    Deuteron and proton NMR study of D₂, p-dichlorobenzene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene in bimesogenic liquid crystals with two nematic phases

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    The solutes dideuterium, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and p-dichlorobenzene (pdcb) are co-dissolved in a 61/39 wt% mixture of CBC9CB/5CB, a bimesogenic liquid crystal with two nematic phases. NMR spectra are collected for each solute. The local electric field gradient (FZZ) is obtained from the dideuterium spectrum. A double Maier-Saupe potential (MSMS) is used to rationalize the order parameters of pdcb. The liquid-crystal fields G₁ and G₂ are taken to be due to size and shape interactions and interactions between the solute molecular quadrupole and the mean FZZ of the medium. The FZZ’s obtained from D₂ and G₂ (from pdcb) are compared and discussed

    NMR study of a bimesogenic liquid crystal with two nematic phases

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    Recent interest in bimesogenic liquid crystals showing two nematic phases has led us to investigate the nematic mean-field interactions in these nematic phases by using rigid solutes as probes. The nematic potential that is modelled by two independent Maier-Saupe terms is successful in fitting the observed dipolar couplings (order parameters) of para-, meta- and ortho-dichlorobenzene solutes in both the nematic phases of 39 wt% of 4-n-pentyl-4′-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) in α,ω-bis(4-4′-cyanobiphenyl)nonane (CB_C9_CB) to better than the 5% level. The derived liquid-crystal potential parameters G₁ and G₂ for each solute in the N and Ntb phases will be discussed. The most interesting observation is that G1 (associated with size and shape interactions) is almost constant in the Ntb phase, whereas G₂ (associated with longer-range electrostatic interactions) has large variation, even changing sign

    Macartney Rose Control Systems.

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    A technique for optimal temperature estimation for modeling sunrise/sunset thermal snap disturbance torque

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    A predictive temperature estimation technique which can be used to drive a model of the Sunrise/Sunset thermal 'snap' disturbance torque experienced by low Earth orbiting spacecraft is described. The twice per orbit impulsive disturbance torque is attributed to vehicle passage in and out of the Earth's shadow cone (umbra), during which large flexible appendages undergo rapidly changing thermal conditions. Flexible members, in particular solar arrays, experience rapid cooling during umbra entrance (Sunset) and rapid heating during exit (Sunrise). The thermal 'snap' phenomena has been observed during normal on-orbit operations of both the LANDSAT-4 satellite and the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS). Thermal 'snap' has also been predicted to be a dominant source of error for the TOPEX satellite. The fundamental equations used to model the Sunrise/Sunset thermal 'snap' disturbance torque for a typical solar array like structure will be described. For this derivation the array is assumed to be a thin, cantilevered beam. The time varying thermal gradient is shown to be the driving force behind predicting the thermal 'snap' disturbance torque and therefore motivates the need for accurate estimates of temperature. The development of a technique to optimally estimate appendage surface temperature is highlighted. The objective analysis method used is structured on the Gauss-Markov Theorem and provides an optimal temperature estimate at a prescribed location given data from a distributed thermal sensor network. The optimally estimated surface temperatures could then be used to compute the thermal gradient across the body. The estimation technique is demonstrated using a typical satellite solar array

    Macartney Rose Control Systems.

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